WELCOME TO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION II

Dr. Aitken

Right click so these operate outside Parkonline.org:

Companion Site (Wood Textbook) click here.

Companion Site (Case Studies) click here.

Upload Portfolio Items to Dropbox "Portfolio" - Handouts are in the DocSharing
ICOMM
Course planning document: http://JoanAitken.org/CA301/

Online course planning http://JoanAitken.org/CA301/Intro.htm

229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Park University, Parkville, MO 64152
816-584-6785 (office & message)

45% Minor Assignments, participation, quiz grades, Try-It-Outs.

10% Class Leadership on Cases and Written Reflections: Analyze the communication in a relationship (a case study of real or simulated interpersonal communication).

10% Presentation--Dinner with an Interpersonal Communication Theorist.

20% Portfolio with Research Paper (Core Assessment).

15% Final Exam

Quick Overview

Tentative Schedule

 

Week and Topic

Monday Content

Wood Chapter Reading

Wednesday Cases

B & W Cases

Written reflection on your assigned cases are due the day you lead the class.

Friday Applications

Assignments due.

Assessment for portfolio.

1

Interpersonal Communication as a Field of Study.

Skim webpage & course materials

Chapter 1

Read Case 1

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

1. Define communication and interpersonal communication and differentiate them from other related terms, such as intercultural communication or public relations.
2. Describe the general nature of theory and its place in the study of interpersonal communication.
 

2 Understanding Interpersonal Communication Theories.



 

Read chapter 2

Read Case 2 & 10

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

3 Building and Testing Theory.

Read chapter 3

Read Case 3

Friday--independent group work day.

4 Early Interpersonal Communication Theory.

Read chapter 4

Read Case 4

Research for paper.  Bring a good quality reference you will explain.  Give us the correct APA listing via email.

5 Theories about Symbolic Activity

Read chapter 5

Read Case 5 & 8

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

6 Theories about Performance.

Read chapter 6

Read Case 6

Work collectively on the research paper.

7 Theories about How People Construct Meaning.

Read chapter 7

Read Case 11 & 12

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

8 Theories of Interpersonal Dynamics.

Read chapter 8

Read Case 7

Midterm Test

9 Interpersonal Theories about Communication and the Evolution of Relationships.

Read chapter 9

Read Case 13

Read Case 15

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

To prepare for your presentations next week, talk with your group members about your theorists. Write: Compare and contrast different theorist’s approaches to studying interpersonal communication.

10

 

Presentations about Theorists

Group 1 Abdelhadi, Entesar
Enns, Andria
Harris, Megan
Jacobsen, Lauren

Group 2

Johnston, Jennifer
Mahfouf, Fiona
Mbengue, Souleymane
Mead, Jolene
Meador, Hannah

 

Presentations Due

Group 3
Riner, Justine
Smiddy, Stephanie
Sommer, Hannah
Stark, Sharon
Stewart, Alicia

11 Theories about Interpersonal Communities.

Read chapter 10

Read Case 14

Work collectively on the research paper.

12 Media Effects on Relationships

Read chapter 11

 

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

Portfolio Research Paper Due

13 Critical Communication Theories.

Read chapter 12

Read Case 17

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

14 The Frontiers of Interpersonal Theory.

Read chapter 13

Read Case 18

Upload to Portfolio in dropbox:  example quiz, try-it-out, or in class learning activities.

15 Communication Theories in Action: A Final Look.

Read chapter 14

Course closure and review for final.

No revision accepted after first class meeting of this week.

16

 

n/a

 

Final exam as scheduled.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COURSE PLANNING DOCUMENTS This page is my gift to you! 

To search this page, use "Control F" and enter keyword.

-Dr. Joan E. Aitken, Professor, Communication Arts, Park University, 229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Parkville, MO 64152, 816-584-6785 

Week 1

Week oneLEARNING OUTCOME:  Review basic interpersonal communication principles.  Skim webpage & course materials

Chapter 1

Read Case 1 and use collaborative teamwork answer online.  Write in a word processor!  Then cut and paste into the online box.  MAKE A COPY and put into your electronic portfolio.

Chapter 1 quiz and one Try It Out assignment.  MAKE COPIES AND Add quiz results and the Try-It-Out to portfolio.

Wood Preface and Chapter 1 Lecture

Preface and Introduction

Theories are interesting  and relevant to everyday life.

We'll consider a limited number of theories, which are relevant to interpersonal communication and relationships.

We learn the history of an intellectual discipline to appreciate its identity.

Theories that have charted the communication field's evolution and led to its current status as an intellectually vibrant, socially relevant area of study and practice.

You may develop an appreciation of the PROCESS of theorizing as an intellectual activity.

You should gain insight into the concerns and goals that motivate scholars to develop theories.

Values of Studying Communication Theories

Enhance your insight into the issues, principles, and problems that characterize the discipline today.

Enlarge your understanding of experiences in your personal life and lives of those around you.

Agree or Disagree?

Theories and theorists vary widely not only in what they study but also in the fundamental assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.

What is your theory of interpersonal communication?

Debate:  Set up argument(s) in favor and argument(s) against and be prepared to argue either side.

 

Chapter one:  Communication as a Field of Study

In 1970, Frank Dance, a communication theorist, counted over 100 definitions of communication proposed by experts in the field.

What do you think?

 We actively construct meaning. 

Debate
Prepare to argue either side of the definition or theory.  What are three argument(s) in favor or support of this idea and three argument(s)) against or in disagreement of this idea.  Give one example or anecdote from your personal experience, for each side of the argument.

Communication is a systemic process in which individuals interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings.

  • Communication is a process, which means it is ongoing and always in motion.

  • Systemic means that communication involves a group of interrelated parts that affect one another.

  • Symbols are abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things.

  • Meaning is the heart of communication because we create it.  

 

Communication with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly influences our physical well-being.  People who lack close friends have greater levels of anxiety and depression than people who are close to others.

Apply Research Findings

Can you think of an example or story from your personal experience that supports scholarly research findings?

Heart disease is more common among people who lack strong interpersonal relationships.

People in disturbed relationships tend to have low self-esteem and more headaches, alcoholism, cancer, and sleep disorders.

Arthritis patients who have good relationships with friends and loved ones have less severe symptoms and live longer.

There is a link between good relationships and physical and mental health.

Social isolation and lack of intimates are correlated with increased problems in physical and psychological well-being

Importance of Communication:

  • Relationships

  • Professional Impact

  • Culture and Society

Relationships

Communication critically affects our relationships.  We build connections with others by revealing our private identities, remembering shared history planning a future, and working out problems and tensions.

Communication is essential for healthy and enduring relationships.

Good communication in intimate relationships involves listening skillfully, expressing your own ideas clearly, and responding with empathy and understanding.

Good relationships are about more than the big moments, but the mundane, small talk, routine talk that weaves lives together is essential.

For couples involved in long-distance romances, the biggest problems are missing the nonverbal communication that occurs in face-to-face interaction and not being able to share small talk.

Professional Impact

 

Communication skills affect professional success.

No company is prepared to teach employees how to deal with people and communicate effectively.

Cultural Impact

Communication skills are essential for a healthy society.

Breadth of the Communication Field

All areas can affect interpersonal communication!

 

Western traditions back to Aristotle who viewed communication as a practical art.

Intrapersonal communication

Our area of emphasis:  Interpersonal communication.

  • Small group and teams

  • Public communication

  • Performance, including stories (narratives).

  • Media and new technologies.  Media reinforce cultural stereotypes about race and ethnicity.  Media can distort reality.

  • Organizational communication, including the personal relationships among coworkers, organizational culture (identity and codes of thought and action that are shared by members of an organization).

  • Intercultural communication.  Less obvious are cultural differences between people who speak the "same" language.  Within the US there are distinct communication cultures based on race, gender, affectional preferences, and ethnicity.

The Heart of Communication Research

  • Symbolic Activities

  • Meaning

 

Careers in Communication

  • Research

  • Public Relations

  • Advertising

  • Education

  • Human Relations

  • Management

 

Review chapter 1

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

communication

A systemic process in which individuals interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings.

fantasy theme

An idea that spins out in a group and captures its social and task foci.

intercultural communication

The branch of communication field that studies communication among people from different cultures, including distinct cultures within a single country.

interpersonal communication

Communication between people. Interpersonal communication exists on a continuum ranging from impersonal (between social roles) to highly personal.

intrapersonal communication

Communication with oneself, including self-talk, planning, and reflections.

meaning

The significance conferred on experiences and phenomena; meaning is constructed, not intrinsic to communication. In general systems theory, communication has two levels of meaning: the content level, which concerns the information in a message; and the relationship level, which concerns what the message implies about the power, liking, and responsiveness between the communicators.

monitoring

Observing and managing our own thoughts, feelings, and actions. Monitoring is possible because humans are symbol users.

organizational culture

Understandings about identity and codes of thought and action that are shared by members of an organization.

process

The quality of being ongoing, in flux, ever changing. Communication is a process.

symbol

An arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representation of other phenomena. Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought.

systemic

Related to systems, which are organized and interacting wholes in which all parts interrelate. Communication is systemic.

 

Case 1 Thought and Reflection

  1. What are the reasons Madeline and Martin give for their married-name preferences?

  2. Considering both Madeline’s and Martin’s perspectives, what are the possible decisions this couple might make?

  3. In what ways do married-name choices suggest different types or styles of marriage relationships? Identify the characteristics of marriage for Martin and for Madeline.

  4. To what degree can cultural issues affect married-name choices?

  5. In this relationship what role does self-disclosure play in defining power and control in the process of decision making?

Based on a case study, discuss or write a summary of each of the following concepts

  1. Mental process in communication

  2. Perception,

  3. Interpersonal communication content

  4. Amount of interpersonal communication

  5. Interpersonal and task behaviors

  6. Norms

  7. Conflict

Responsibilities in a Small Group*

  1. Be committed to the group’s goals

  2. Fulfill individual assignments

  3. Avoid interpersonal conflicts

  4. Encourage full participation

  5. Keep the discussion on track

*Lucas, S. E.  (2004).  The art of public speaking.  (8th ed.)  Boston, MA:  McGraw-Hill.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

 

COME PREPARED FOR OUR NEXT CLASS MEETING!

 

Learning theory suggests that students learn more if they review what they have just learned and if they preview and prepare for what they plan to learn. 

 

1.  Take several minutes to talk with your partner or group about what you have learned today. 

 

2.  Also, look ahead to what you need to do to prepare for the next class meeting.  What do you already know about the next course topic?  Discuss your experiences related to this topic.  What assignment do you need to prepare for the next class meeting (e.g., reading, writing, speech)? 

If there is no specific assignment, what do you need to do to mentally prepare before class so you are an active learner?

 

"The sad truth is that excellence makes people nervous."
Shana Alexander

 

Week 2

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Describe the general nature of theory and its place in the study of interpersonal communication

 

Chapter 2  Lecture
Understanding Communication Theories


Photo Credit click here.

Review from last class:  How does mediated communication affect interpersonal communication?

Consider this McLuhanish piece: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duplpYN5nmE

 

By way of introduction into theory building, do you have a theory about nonverbal communication?  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfDWQG47pAQ&feature=PlayList&p=F35C9F56FDB8A863&playnext=1&index=15

 

People act on theories, often without realizing it in their everyday lives.

Theories are attempts to make sense of things.

A theory offers an account of what something is, how it operates.

Theories are human constructions--symbolic ways we represent phenomena.

Goals of theories

  1. Description

  2. Explanation

  3. Prediction, control, and understanding.

  4. Reform (pursuit of positive social change)

 

Teamwork!

Complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility.  Have one person act as the recorder, who type your answer after class, email it to the group members, who then can modify the assignment and put it in their ePortfolios.

See p. 39, Try it Out

ASSIGNMENT:  Develop a theory of communication for your classroom. 

  1. Identify and describe the most important features of communication in your classroom.

  2. Explain how the features interact and what happens as they do.

  3. Offer an understanding of what the communication in your classroom means and how it is subjectively experienced by individuals in the class.

  4. Predict what will happen in the future, and define ways you could control future events in the classroom.

  5. Identify what should be the case for communication in your class.

 

  • Are there any communication practices that oppress or discriminate against certain members of the class?

  • If so, what needs to be changed to end or reduce the disadvantage?

  • Does the communication that takes place support the goals of learning fully?

  • If not, how should it be changed to improve learning?

 

 

 

Standards for evaluating theories:

  1. scope

  2. testable

  3. simplicity

  4. useful

  5. heuristic

 

 

  • SCOPE
    Scope refers to the range of phenomena a theory describes and explains.

  • Some theories focus on very narrow realms of communication, and others advance grand perspectives.

  • How well does a theory answer questions:  The WHAT question and the HOW or WHY question?

  • A theory clarifies what it considers ESSENTIAL in communication.

  • Laws-based explanations argument that anytime x happens, y will follow, or that x and y are usually related.  Laws-based explanations may be either causal or correlational

  • There are no universal laws in communication.

  • Rules-based explanations aim to articulate the patterns that describe and explain what happens in a specific type of communication situation or relationship.  Thus, RULES have a more restricted scope than LAWS.  Rules are regularities. 

 

TESTABILITY

Can the theory be tested?
 

PARSIMONY
Parsimony refers to appropriate simplicity.

 

UTILITY
Is there practical value?  Kurt Lewin said that there is nothing so practical as a good theory.

 

HEURISM
Provokes new ideas, insights, thinking, and research.

 

BALANCING CRITERIA

 

A particular theory may fare well on some of the above criteria and poorly on others.

 

Theories, like foods, can be assessed in different ways that lead us to different conclusions about their merit.

 

 

PERSPECTIVE FOR STUDYING POINTS OF VIEW

  1. Theorists choose which kind of communication to focus on.  Theorists make different choices about what they will focus on in studying a particular kind of communication.

  2. Theorists also vary in the goals they pursue.

  3. Theorists differ in what they regard as a good explanation.

  4. Some theories cannot work together because they reflect fundamentally opposed views of human beings or of knowledge (p. 47).

  5. A theory asks particular questions.

 

 

Review Chapter 2

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

causal

A form of explanation that asserts that one phenomenon directly determines another.

control

The use of explanations and predictions to govern what a phenomenon actually does.

correlational

A form of explanation that asserts that two things go together but not that one causes the other.

description

One goal of theory; the use of symbols to represent something and to identify its parts.

explanation

One goal of theorizing; an effort to account for why and/or how something works.

heurism

A criterion for evaluating theories; the capacity of a theory to provoke new insights, thoughts, and understandings.

laws-based explanation

A theoretical explanation of the form," Anytime x happens, y will invariably or probably follow, "or "x and y always or almost always go together."

parsimony

One criterion for evaluating theories; the appropriate simplicity of a theory.

prediction

Projecting what will happen to a phenomenon under specified conditions or exposure to particular stimuli.

reform

One goal of theorizing; the use of theory to instigate change in pragmatic life. Also called "producing positive social change."

rules-based explanation

A form of theoretical explanation that articulates regularities, or patterns, in human behavior that are routinely followed in particular types of communication situations and relationships.

scope

One criterion for evaluating theories; the range of phenomena a theory describes and explains.

testability

The extent to which a theory's claims can be appraised.  Testability is one criterion for evaluating a theory.

theory

An account of what something is, how it works, what it produces or causes to happen, and what can change how it operates.  Theories are points of view, human constructions.

understanding

One goal of theorizing; gaining insight into a process, situation, or phenomenon, not necessarily with the goal of predicting or controlling it.

utility

A criterion for evaluating theories; practical merit or applied value of a theory.

 

Case 2 For Further Thought and Reflection

  1. In what ways are disabled people stigmatized by their disabilities? How do others treat them and communicate with them?

  2. What kinds of situations are particularly problematic for persons with disabilities, especially in regard to helping and maintaining privacy?

  3. Some of the other cases in this book identify competing dialectical tensions that exist within relationships—independence—dependence, openness—closedness, stability—change. Which of these dialectical tensions do we see in Steve’s and Jim’s experiences?

  4. What experiences have you had with individuals with disabilities? Does this case help you think about alternative ways of communicating with disabled people? How do you think they would like you to interact with them?

  5. What impact do disability and communication patterns, as they are affected by disability, have on identity and self-esteem?

  6. Do you think Steve’s parents made the best decision when they elected to keep Steve at home rather than institutionalizing him?

Case 10 Thought and Reflection

  1. It is said that communication rules help prescribe rules for behavior. What general communication rules do you see operating throughout this case?

  2. It is said that communication rules are used to evaluate, justify, correct, predict, and/or explain behavior. How do communication rules in this case function to evaluate, justify, correct, predict and explain behaviors?

  3. What implicit (unstated prescriptions for behavior) and explicit (clearly stated prescriptions for behavior) rules did you see? Which appear to have more importance?

  4. When is it appropriate to break rules? How were rules broken in this case?

  5. Rules of organizational socialization (e.g., learning the ropes of how to behave in a new situation) are discussed in this case. How might the types of socialization rules identified here apply to other situations and contexts?

  6. Sororities and other organizations often have relatively formal rules for when and how to communicate. In more casual relationships, rules tend to be less formal, conscious and explicit but equally present. Identify rules that guide how you and others act when your family has dinner, or when you and friends go out to dinner together.

Collaborative Teamwork

Discuss or write a summary of each of the following concepts

 

  1. Conflict

  2. Creativity

  3. Touch

  4. Distance

  5. Time usage as interpersonal communication

  6. Manipulation of environment in interpersonal communication

  7. Intervention in interpersonal conflict

  8. Attitude change and opinions in interpersonal communication

  9. How communication fosters interpersonal attraction

  10. Productivity and leadership

Responsibilities in a Small Group*

  1. Be committed to the group’s goals

  2. Fulfill individual assignments

  3. Avoid interpersonal conflicts

  4. Encourage full participation

  5. Keep the discussion on track

*Lucas, S. E.  (2004).  The art of public speaking.  (8th ed.)  Boston, MA:  McGraw-Hill.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

COME PREPARED FOR OUR NEXT CLASS MEETING!

 

Learning theory suggests that students learn more if they review what they have just learned and if they preview and prepare for what they plan to learn. 

 

1.  Take several minutes to talk with your partner or group about what you have learned today. 

 

2.  Also, look ahead to what you need to do to prepare for the next class meeting.  What do you already know about the next course topic?  Discuss your experiences related to this topic.  What assignment do you need to prepare for the next class meeting (e.g., reading, writing, speech)? 

If there is no specific assignment, what do you need to do to mentally prepare before class so you are an active learner?

 

"The sad truth is that excellence makes people nervous."
Shana Alexander

 

Week 3

.LEARNING OUTCOME:  Explain how we define ourselves as interpersonal communicators.

 

 

Try It Out:

Be sure to submit through the online form and put your full name on the first line in the answer box.

Part A--Write a summary of yourself as an interpersonal communicator.

 

Part B--Write about interpersonal communication memories, observations, and experiences that may help you define yourself that way. 

Begin every sentence with "I Remember"

 

You might think about the style of Lisa Hannigan's I Remember http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEV5WSBmhIA

I remember it well
The first time that I saw
Your head around the door
'Cause mine stopped working

I remember it well
There was wet in your hair
I was stood in stare
And time stopped moving

I remember it well
Taxied out of a storm
To watch you perform
And my ships were sailing

I remember it well
I was stood in your line
And your mouth, your mouth, your mind...
 

Chapter 3 Lecture

Building and Testing Theory


Photo credit.

 

Question!

 

Do theories of human communication describe how humans actually communicate?

 

Or do they reflect individual theorists' perceptions and perspectives?

 

What do you think?!?!

 

VIEWS OF HUMAN NATURE

 

Ontology are assumptions about human nature.  The assumptions theorists make about humans can't be proved or disproved scientifically; they are matters of faith or belief.

 

DETERMINISM-------------FREE WILL

Determinism assumes that human behavior is governed by forces beyond individual control, usually the twin forces of biology and environment.

 

On the other end of the ontological spectrum is the belief that humans have free will and that they make choices about how to act.

 

For Heidegger, thrownness refers to the fact that we are thrown into a multitude of arbitrary conditions that influence our lives and opportunities.

 

TRY IT OUT  p. 55

 

WAYS OF KNOWING

 

Epistemology:  the branch of philosophy that deals with knowledge, and is concerned with how we know.

 

DISCOVERING TRUTH

There is a singular truth.  Objectivism is the belief that reality is material and external to the human mind.

Objectivity the quality of being uninfluenced by values, biases, personal feelings, and other subjective factors when perceiving material reality.

 

Believers in objective truth presume that the true nature, or meaning of any act of communication can be determined.

CREATING MEANING
Those who believe that there are multiple realities would regard it as entirely reasonable that different people interpret communication in varying ways.

Standpoint theory--the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what its members experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.

   Is knowledge based on the existence of phenomena (the falling tree) or on human perceptions (hearing it fall).

There are different opinions about what counts as knowledge and how we come to know what we think we know.

POSITION ONE:  OBJECTIVITY
POSITION TWO:  MULTIPLE REALITIES (STANDPOINT THEORY)

Debate!
Prepare to argue either side of the idea, definition, or theory.  What are three argument(s) in favor or support of this idea and three argument(s)) against or in disagreement of this idea.  Give one example or anecdote from your personal experience, for each side of the argument.

 

PURPOSES OF THEORY

 

University Laws

A law is an inviolate, unalterable fact that holds true across time and space.

Universal laws may be more applicable to natural science than to human behavior, including communication.

 

Situated Rules

There are no laws that explain human communication across all time and circumstances. 

We seek theories as the articulation of rules that describe patterns in human behavior.

 

Question!

What should the focus be for theorists?

Behavior?

Meanings behind behavior?

A combination of behavior and meaning?  

What do you think?!?!

 

Behaviorism:  A form of science that focuses on observable behaviors and that assumes meanings, motives, and other subjective phenomena either don't exist or are irrelevant. 

 

Behaviorists believe that scientists can study only concrete behaviors, such as what people do or say.

 

Human motives, meanings, and intentions are beyond the realm of behavioristic investigation.

 

Skinner believed that human behavior is a response to external stimuli.  He was well known for referring to the mind as a "black box," the contents of which cannot be known and which are irrelevant to science.

All that can be measured is concrete, objective behavior.

Agree or Disagree?

Theories and theorists vary widely not only in what they study but also in the fundamental assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.

   Meaning, motive, and intentions, even if they exist, aren't measurable, so they aren't within the province of science (p. 62).

 

MEANINGS

Many scholars aren't convinced that behaviorism is desirable.  Theorists who reject behavioral views of science believe that the crux of human activity is meaning, not behaviors themselves.  What is distinctively human is free will or the ability to make choices and the capacity to create meanings (crucial to humanists).

 

John Searle wrote about brute facts, which are the objective, concrete phenomena or observable behaviors that behaviorists study.  Institutional facts are what brute facts MEAN, what humanists wish to study.

 

Teamwork!

Complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility.

 

TRY IT OUT p. 63  Provide a description based on only brute facts and a second description based on institutional facts.

  • A marriage ceremony.

  • A person interacting in a chat room.

  • Two friends engaging in a game of friendly insults and put-downs.

 

 

TESTING THEORIES

 

HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Hypotheses are testable predictions about relationships between communication phenomena.

If you don't have a clear basis for making a prediction, generate a research question.  Use research questions in your action research.

 

DEFINE TERMS:  Operational definitions are precise descriptions that specify the phenomena of interest.

 

QUANTITATIVE METHODS gather information that can be quantified and then interpret eh data to make arguments about what the numbers reveal about communication behaviors and relationships among communication phenomena.

 

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS use numbers to describe human behavior.

 

Apply Research Findings

Can you think of an example or story from your personal experience that supports scholarly research findings?

 

  Husbands interrupt wives far more often than wives interrupt husbands.

 

Women are more active than men in doing what is called "conversational maintenance," which is involving others in conversations.

 

Social desirability bias is when subjects give responses that they think are socially acceptable but which may not be totally honest.

 

An experiment is a controlled study that systematically manipulates one thing (called an independent variable) to determine how that affects another thing (called a dependent variable, for what it does depends on the independent variable).

 

Dependent variable affects independent variable.

 

Apply Research Findings

Can you think of an example or story from your personal experience that supports scholarly research findings?

Acitelli found that both partners found it satisfying to talk about the relationship when there was a problem.  When no conflict or difficulty existed, however, the wives in the scenarios were perceived as being more satisfied with conversation about the relationship.

 

QUALITATIVE METHODS

Valuable when we wish not to count or measure phenomena but to understand the character of experience, particularly how people perceive and make sense of their communication experience.

 

Textual analysis--also called interpretative analysis--involves describing communication texts and interpreting their meaning. 

 

Apply Research Findings

Can you think of an example or story from your personal experience that supports scholarly research findings?

  Men often interrupt to challenge others or to assert themselves.

Women's interruptions are more likely to support others or to indicate interest in what others are saying.

 

Ethnography attempts to discover what things mean to others by sensitive observation of human activity.   They rely on unobtrusive methods, which are means of gathering data that intrude minimally on naturally occurring interaction.

 

Critical analysis suggests that research should make a real difference in the lives of human beings.  Critical scholarship is one important way to change oppressive or wrong practices in the world.

 

ASSESSING RESEARCH

Validity refers to the truth or accuracy of a theory in measuring what it claims to measure.

External validity refers to the generalizability of a theory.  Internal validity is that the theory's design and methods do what they claim to do.

 

Reliability is the consistency.

 

Significance is the conceptual or pragmatic importance of a theory.

 

 

 

Review Chapter 3

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

behaviorism

A form of science that focuses on observable behaviors and that assumes human motives, meanings, feelings, and other subjective phenomena either don't exist or are irrelevant to behavior.

brute fact

An objective, concrete phenomenon unadorned by interpretations of meaning.

critical analysis

Research that goes beyond description and explanation to argue for changes in communicative practices that are judged to be oppressive, wrong, or otherwise undesirable.

descriptive statistics

Numerical representations of human behavior that describe populations, proportions, and frequencies.

determinism

The belief that human behavior is governed by forces beyond individual control, usually biology, environment, or a combination of the two.

epistemology

The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge, or how we know what we know.

ethnography

A qualitative method of research that interprets actions so as to generate understanding consistent with the frameworks of those who perform the actions.

experiment

A controlled study that systematically manipulates one thing (called the independent variable) to determine how it affects another thing (called the dependent variable because what it does depends on the independent variable).

external validity

The generalizability of a theory across contexts, especially those beyond the confines of experimental situations.

gender

A socially created system of values, identities, and behaviors that are prescribed for women and men. Unlike sex, which is biologically determined, gender is socially constructed.

humanism

A form of science that focuses on human choices, motives, and meanings and assumes that the reasons or causes of human behavior lie within humans, not outside of them.

hypothesis

A carefully stated, testable prediction of a theoretical relationship or outcome.

institutional fact

The meaning of an act, event, or other phenomenon; interpretations of brute facts.

internal validity

The degree to which the design and methods used to test a theory actually measure what they claim to measure.

law

An inviolate, unalterable fact that holds true across time and space. Also called universal law and covering law.

meaning

The significance conferred on experiences and phenomena; meaning is constructed, not intrinsic to communication. In general systems theory, communication has two levels of meaning: the content level, which concerns the information in a message; and the relationship level, which concerns what the message implies about the power, liking, and responsiveness between the communicators.

objectivism

The belief that reality is material, external to the human mind, and the same for everyone.

objectivity

The quality of being uninfluenced by values, biases, personal feelings, and other subjective factors.

ontology

The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of humans.

operational definition

A precise description that specifies how to observe the phenomena of interest. Operational definitions provide clarity and precision to research hypotheses and research questions used to test theory.

qualitative methods

Forms of research that involve probing and interpreting the subjective meanings of experience.

quantitative methods

Forms of research that involve gathering quantifiable data.

reliability

A criterion for evaluating theoretical research that concerns the consistency of particular behaviors, patterns, or relationships.

research question

A question that specifies the phenomena of interest to a scholar but does not predict relationships between phenomena. Research questions are less formal than hypotheses.

sex

The biological and genetic quality of maleness or femaleness; not the same as gender.

significance

The conceptual or pragmatic importance of a theory.

social desirability bias

A tendency for research participants to give responses that they perceive as socially acceptable, which may not be honest.

standpoint theory

The view that the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what members of that group experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.

survey

A quantitative method of research that relies on instruments, questionnaires, or interviews to find out about feelings, experiences, and so forth.

text

All symbolic activities, written, oral, or nonverbal; a form of data useful in qualitative research.

thrownness

The arbitrary conditions of the particular time and place of an individual's life.

unobtrusive methods

Means of gathering data that intrude minimally on naturally occurring interaction.

validity

A criterion for evaluating a theory. Validity has both internal (the theory measures what it claims to measure) and external (the theory applies to real life beyond the laboratory) dimensions.

Coffee and Conversation

In pairs, discuss case study 3.   Discuss what you know and what you think with another person in the class. 

"Saying what we think gives us a wider conversational range than saying what we know."
Cullen Hightower

 

Case 3 Thought and Reflection

  1. How could Doug reduce the uncertainty about how his parents will react to his coming out story?

  2. How does Doug’s dilemma address the integration/separation and expression/privacy poles of Baxter’s dialectical theory?

  3. What steps did Doug go through to begin his self-identification as a gay man? What steps could Doug continue to take to establish his identity intrapersonally and interpersonally as a gay man?

  4. How did Doug’s gay network of Peter and Charles help his coming out process? Why is social support for relationships important?

  5. Who would it be easier to come out to: parents or friends? Why?

  6. Have you ever been on the other side of this issue, wondering if someone might be gay? After reading this case, how might you act sensitively toward this person?

 

 

Collaborative Teamwork

Use a case study to complete the following analysis.

  1. Evaluate the communication strategies used in a given situation in terms of successfulness and usefulness.

  2. Offer suggestions for improvement of strategy selection.

.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

Week 4

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Evaluate perception’s influence on interpersonal communication.

 

Chapter 4 Lecture

An Early Communication Theory:  General Semantics


Photo credit. 

 

Even though general semantics is no longer influential in the field of communication, it made and makes valuable contributions to our understanding of what happens when people talk to one another.

 

CHARACTER OF SYMBOLS

Symbols are arbitrary.

Symbols are abstract.

Symbols are ambiguous.

Videos Clips

Consider this clip from No Country for Old Men http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YP1v85pUuoI
This is Ellen Degeneres making fun of the current kids' slangs and texting abbreviations. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mf15jou8nPw
This one deals with actual different languages and how they sound. It is a bit stereotypical, but interesting. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VpH5EHEFfIU
This one is a bit more of an British humor type of video. This woman is in France and she doesn't try to speak French, so the two guys poke fun at her. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULLfH5O8wS0

Teamwork!  Please answer Chapter 4 TIO Activity 1.  Submit through the system.

http://www.wadsworth.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0534566391&discipline_number=48

 

Complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility.

TRY IT OUT, p. 79

Each individual needs to write a definition of each of the following words or phrases.

Committed relationship

Men's communication.

Women's communication.

Compare your definitions with those of other students in your group.  How do your meanings differ?  How might your and others' standpoints explain the differences?

 

 

HOW SHOULD WE SAY IT?!?!

Work with team members to collaboratively write appropriate language for the following circumstances.  Select a spokesperson to share the groups words for each item.

  • Acceptance

  • Advice

  • Apology

  • Complaint

  • Congratulations

  • Get well.

 

Meanings are contextual.

 

Korzybski believed that communication problems often occur when we rely on our maps, or words, to assign meanings instead of referring to the territories, or actual phenomena of experience.

 

Intension-al orientations to communication and meanings are based on internal factors, or what's inside of us--our own definitions, associations, and fields of experience related to words we speak, hear, and read.

 

Extension-al orientations are based on observation and attention to objective particulars that distinguish phenomena from one another.

 

Remedies for Misunderstanding

 

Etc.

Indexing

Feedforward--anticipate effects of communication and adapt to the anticipated effects in advance.

 

General Semantics is an important theory in communication studies.

v.

General Semantics has no value as a theory today. 

Debate!
Prepare to argue either side of the idea, definition, or theory.  What are three argument(s) in favor or support of this idea and three argument(s)) against or in disagreement of this idea.  Give one example or anecdote from your personal experience, for each side of the argument.

 

Critical Assessment of General Semantics

  • Too simplistic.

  • Misrepresents the character of symbols and language.

  • Lacks applied value.


 

Review chapter 4

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

extensional orientation

A view of meaning and communication that is based on objective particulars of phenomena.

feedforward

In general semantics theory, the process of anticipating the effects of communication and adapting it in advance of actually engaging in communication.

indexing

Associating referents (such as names) with specific dates, situations, and so forth to remind ourselves that meanings change; advocated by general semanticists as a remedy for misunderstanding.

intensional orientation

A view of meaning and communication that is based on factors inside individuals (biases, experiences, etc.).

Case 4 Thought and Reflection

Colbert Christmas Special http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJQYXghcNvo

Daily Show http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=one%20tree%20hill%20christmas&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=+hanukkah++christmas+colbert&hl=en&emb=0 More http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=colbert+christmas+special&www_google_domain=www.google.com&hl=en&emb=0&aq=1&oq=colbert+c#q=colbert+christmas+special&www_google_domain=www.google.com&hl=en&emb=0&aq=1&oq=colbert+c&start=10

  1. What does it mean to be Jewish and American in a Christian-dominated society?

  2. Which subtle stereotypes of Jewish Americans have you heard personally or seen in the media?

  3. Does Sara’s way of experiencing her religion distance herself from her community?

  4. Have you dated a person from other racial, ethnic, or religious culture? If the answer is yes, did you face any situation similar to the one experienced by Sara. If the answer is no, why not?

  5. Do you believe most women cannot fully identify with a purely male God? Do you support efforts to make translations of religious books more inclusive of women and men?

  6. Are there challenges with being female and belonging to your own religion?

Collaborative Teamwork

As an active group member, complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility. 

 

Use a case study to complete the following analysis.

 

Identify eight concepts/terms associated with interpersonal communication demonstrated in this case study.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

 

Week 5

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Describe the use of symbols and narratives in interpersonal listening and self-disclosure.

Last week we discussed general semantics and symbols.  Ellen on texting:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mf15jou8nPw

Narrative as Bloodsport http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wn6NB98NY78  Narrative andCommunication Animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9c_PwUIC_g8

Discuss a segment of chapter 5 in small groups.  Key ideas are social interaction and narratives.  Chapter 5 Try It Out assignment. Quiz.

Read and discuss Case 5

Dove video http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3661096822405362235&ei=FUubSaPFO5PCqAOKx9CODQ&q=fat+self+esteem&hl=en

Offspring Music Video--Self Esteem  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kIZeVoRBuU  http://www.6lyrics.com/music/the_offspring/lyrics/self_esteem_complete_lyrics.aspx

Case 8.  Self Disclosure

 

 

Chapter 5 Lecture

Theories About Symbolic Activity


Photo credit.   

Mead regarded symbols as the foundation of both personal and social life (symbolic interactionism).

 

Mind and self are acquired in the process of interacting with others.

 

Mind is the ability to use symbols that have common social meanings.

 

Self is the ability to reflect on ourselves from the perspective of others.

Looking glass self.  Symbolic interactionists explain that we learn to see ourselves mirrored in others' eyes.  Our perception of how others see us are lenses through which we perceive ourselves.

 

Self-fulfilling prophecy is when individuals live up to the labels others impose on them.

 

Humans have the distinctive ability to be both the subjects and the objects of their experience.

http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/images/mirror_picass_girlbefore_lg.jpg

Pablo Picasso, entitled Girl Before a Mirror  http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/images/mirror_picass_girlbefore_lg.jpg


I is impulsive, creative, spontaneous, and generally unburdened by social individuality and of criminal and immoral behavior.

 

ME is the socially conscious part of the self, who reflects on the I's impulses and actions.

 

The ME is analytical, evaluative, and above all aware of social conventions, rules, and expectations.

Mead saw the I and the ME as complementary.

 

Symbolic interactionists claim that our meanings for things reflect the perspectives of both particular others and the generalized other.  Individuals also use the perspective of the generalized other to decide what things mean.

HOW PEOPLE CREATE MEANING

People act on the basis of what things mean to them.  Thus, meanings are the basis of behavior, including communication.

Symbolic interactionist claim that meanings are formed in the process of interacting symbolically with others in a society. 

Symbolic interactionists believe that the meanings individuals confer on experiences, feelings, events, activities, other people, and themselves reflect the internalized perspectives of particular others and the generalized other.

 

Symbolic interactionists believe that people act on the basis of what things mean to them AND that meanings are formed in the process of interacting symbolically with others in a society.

 

Blumer insists that individuals construct their action through a process of personal interpretation.

 

Agree or Disagree?

Theories and theorists vary widely not only in what they study but also in the fundamental assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.

Critical Assessment of Symbolic Interactionism

The Theory has conceptual inconsistencies.
Mead is inconsistent in his description of key concepts such as self, mind, and generalized other.

The theory is to vague and broad.

The theory neglects self-esteem.

Has little to say about how various experiences and others' labels for us enhance or diminish self-esteem.

 

DRAMATISM - Burke

Dramatism

Life is a drama, which involves conflict and division that threatens some existing form of order.

IDENTIFICATION

 

All things have substance, which is the general nature or essence of a thing.

Consubstantiality is identification with each other.  Consubstantiality is what makes communication possible.  We can understand one another only because there is some overlap in individuals' substances (experiences, language, goals). 

Communication can't be perfects, because there are also differences and divisions that keep individuals from being completely consubstantial.

Communication is the primary way that we increase our identification, or consubstantiality, with others and diminish our division, or separateness, from others.

Division is always present and is the impetus for communication that seeks to build identification.

GUILT

 

Guilt is the central motive for human action, specifically communication.

Any tension, discomfort, sense of shame, or other unpleasant feeling that humans experience is guilt. 

In Burke's judgment, we continuously feel guilt and are continually attempting to purge ourselves of the discomfort it causes.

HIERARCHY

 

Language allows us to create categories and evaluations that are the basis of social hierarchies, such as socioeconomic classes, title in organizations, and degrees of status and power.

PERFECTION

 

Our symbols allow us to conceive and name perfect forms or ideals that are at the top of the hierarchy:  a flawless relationship, a completely egalitarian society, your ideal weight, a perfect LSAT score, a world free of war.

Guilt arises because of the gap between what is in the case (personal shortcomings, imperfections in relationships, social inequities) and the perfection that we can imagine.

THE NEGATIVE

 

The moral capacity to say "no," "not," and "thou shalt not."  Moral judgments.

PURGING GUILT

 

Purging guilt becomes the principal goal of communication.

First, we may engage in mortification, which is blaming ourselves.

Victimage is identifying an external source for some apparent failing or sin.

Victimage often takes the form of scapegoating, the placing of sins into a sacrificial vessel whose destruction serves to cleanse an individual or group of sin.

THE DRAMATISTIC PENTAD (HEXAD)

 
  1. ACT is what is done by a person.

  2. SCENE is the context.

  3. AGENT is the individual or group that performs an act.

  4. AGENCY is the means an agent uses to accomplish an act (channel).

  5. PURPOSE is the goal of the act.

  6. ATTITUDE is how an actor positions herself or himself relative to others and the contexts in which she or he operates.  Added later, thus the hexad.

RATIO is a proportion that shows the emphasis of an element in the pentad.

 

Agree or Disagree?

Theories and theorists vary widely not only in what they study but also in the fundamental assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.

Burke's dramatism is the most comprehensive theory of symbolic action.

Reservations:

  1. The theory is obscure and confusing.

  2. Is guilt all there is?

 

NARRATIVE THEORY Walter Fisher

 

"Humans are by nature storytelling beings and that the narrative capacity is what is most basic and most distinctive about humans.  According to Fisher, humans are storytelling animals.  Fisher (1987) believed that we make sense of our experiences in life by transforming them into stories, or narrative form. . . .Storytelling, in other words, is an ongoing human activity, one as natural and nearly as continuous breathing" (Wood, 2004, p. 105).

"Humans are wonderfully creative and imaginative beings. . . .We are able to invent and accept new stories when they better explain our lives or offer better directions for future living than the stories we have grown up hearing and believing" (p. 113). 

 

Debate!
Prepare to argue either side of the idea, definition, or theory.  What are three argument(s) in favor or support of this idea and three argument(s)) against or in disagreement of this idea.  Give one example or anecdote from your personal experience, for each side of the argument.

 

Which side is right?!?!

Assumptions of the Rational World Paradigm

  1. People are basically rational beings.

  2. We make decisions and form beliefs on the basis of arguments.

  3. Arguments are determined by the nature of specific speaking situations.

  4. Rationality is evaluated by the quality of knowledge and reasoning.

  5. Life consists of logical relationships that can be discovered through rational logic and reasoning.

Assumptions of the Narrative Paradigm

  1. People are basically storytelling beings.

  2. We make decisions and form beliefs on the basis of good reasons.

  3. What we consider good reasons depends on history, culture, personal character, and biography.

  4. Narrative rationality is evaluated by the coherence and fidelity of stories.

  5. Life is a set of stories, in choosing to accept some stories and to reject others, we continuously re-create our lives and ourselves.

 

 

NARRATIVE RATIONALITY

Not all stories are equally compelling.  We judge stories on the basis of a distinctively narrative form of rationality, thought to be quite different from conventional criteria of rationality.  The two standards for assessing narrative rationality are coherence and fidelity.

COHERENCE:  Do all parts of the story seem to fit together believable?


FIDELITY:  The extent to which a story resonates with listeners' personal experiences and beliefs.
 

Question!

"Most of the major advances in social life have come about because people told new stories that contested popular views and established ideas about life" (Wood, 2004, p. 113).

What do you think?!?!

CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

Incomplete description.

Too broad.

Conservative bias (preservation of existing or established values and practices).

ACTIVITY:  Tell a story that demonstrates the importance of storytelling in communication.  To make sense of the content of this course, students are encouraged to tell stories from their experience, relay stories from reading autobiographic or biographic information, discuss case studies, and listen to the stories of others.  When you tell the story, be sure to explain how you think the story relates to the course content.

 

 

Review chapter 5

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

act

One element in the dramatistic pentad; that which is done.

agency

One element in the dramatistic pentad; the means or channel through which an act is performed.

agent

One element in the dramatistic pentad; the one who performs an act.

attitude

In the dramatistic hexad, incipient action based on how an actor positions herself or himself relative to others and the contexts in which she or he acts; the sixth element that Kenneth Burke added to the original dramatistic pentad, making it a hexad.

coherence

In narrative theory, a standard for judging the quality of a story according to whether it is internally consistent, complete, and believable.

consubstantiality

In dramatism, identifying with another or becoming common in substance.

dramatism

The point of view that life is a drama that can be understood in dramatic terms such as act, agent, scene, agency, and purpose. Identification is viewed as the primary goal of symbolic interaction, and guilt is viewed as the ultimate motive for communication.

dramatistic pentad (hexad)

The method of conducting dramatistic analysis of communication in terms of act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. Later, attitude was added as a sixth element of the method, making it a hexad.

fidelity

In narrative theory, one standard for judging a story's quality according to whether it "rings true."

generalized other

In symbolic interaction theory, the organized perspectives of a social group, community, or society.

guilt

In dramatism, any tension, discomfort, sense of shame, or other unpleasant feeling that humans experience; the motive of all human action.

hierarchy

In dramatism, a social ordering in which phenomena, including people, are classified into groups with different value, status, or rank.

Interaction

In symbolic interaction theory, the phase or part of self that is impulsive, creative, and unconstrained by social norms and knowledge.

looking glass self

In symbolic interaction theory, the image of oneself that one gains by seeing the self mirrored in others' eyes.

ME

In symbolic interaction theory, the phase or part of self that is socially aware, analytical, and evaluative.

mind

In symbolic interaction theory, the ability to use significant symbols. Mind is acquired through symbolic interaction with others.

mortification

In dramatism, a method of purging guilt by blaming ourselves, confessing failings, and seeking forgiveness.

narrative paradigm/narrative theory

The point of view that humans are natural storytellers and that most, if not all, communication is storytelling.

narrative rationality

In narrative theory, the judgment of the quality of narratives, or stories, according to their coherence and fidelity.

negative

In dramatism, the capacity to say no; the basis of moral conduct and thought.

particular other

In symbolic interaction theory, an individual who is significant to another person.

perfection

In dramatism, our imagined ideal or perfect form of things and ourselves. The inability to achieve perfection is a source of guilt.

purpose

One element in the dramatistic pentad; the reason for an act.

ratio

In dramatism, the proportion of different elements in the dramatistic pentad.

role taking

In symbolic interaction theory, an individual's internalization and perception of experiences from the perspective of another person or persons.

scapegoating

In dramatism, displacing sins into a sacrificial vessel whose destruction serves to cleanse an individual or group of its sins.

scene

In the dramatistic pentad, the context in which an act is performed.

self

In symbolic interaction theory, the ability to reflect on oneself from the perspective of others. Self is not present at birth but is acquired through symbolic interactions with others.

self-fulfilling prophecy

Behaving and seeing ourselves in ways that are consistent with how others label us.

substance

In dramatism, the general nature or essence of some thing or person.

symbolic interactionism/symbolic interaction theory

The point of view that claims society predates individuals, who acquire minds and selves in the process of interacting symbolically with other members of a culture. Symbols are also necessary to the functioning and continuation of collective life.

victimage

In dramatism, a method of purging guilt by identifying an external source (a scapegoat) for some apparent failing or sin.

 

Case 5 Thought and Reflection

  1. How does Reece’s intrapersonal communication about her weight affect her self-esteem? What messages does she send herself repeatedly that affect her self-esteem? Where do these messages come from?

  2. How does your communication with yourself and with others affect your identity? What role does communication play in shaping your identity?

  3. Not all people feel the same pressure to be thin. How much pressure do you and your friends feel to be thin? Do you hear people talking about wanting to be thin and measuring themselves against impossible standards? What might account for some people feeling an intense amount of pressure and others not feeling any pressure?

  4. In this case, Reece strongly wants to lose weight and expresses her willingness to "do whatever it takes" to be thin. Do you think her desire and her behavior are unhealthy? Does her friend Emma have a responsibility to say something to Reece about her behavior? What do you think Emma should do to keep her friend from hurting herself?

  5. What racial/ethnic differences in views toward weight can you see in the students’ questions and comments in class? What might explain the racial/ethnic differences in views toward weight?

Case 8 Thought and Reflection

  1. When Katherine and her parents are getting ready to leave for college, Katherine chooses not to respond to her father’s self-disclosing statements.  She also chooses several times not to disclose to Kim, her roommate, or to Russ. What are the drawbacks to disclosing that might have motivated her to remain private?

  2. During her first few days at Western State University, Katherine makes decisions about disclosing to her mother, Kim, Russ, and Dr. O’Neill. What are the possible benefits for Katherine of self-disclosing? Why did it seem easier for her to self-disclose to her mother, Kim, and Dr. O’Neill than to Russ?

  3. Dr. O’Neill’s four guidelines for considering when to self-disclose were provided in the context of whether Katherine should disclose to Russ. How do the guidelines apply to Katherine and Kim’s relationship?

  4. How do Kim and Katherine use self-disclosure to create impressions with each other and with others on campus?

  5. Self-disclosing communication can vary in intensity, in the degree to which it is personal. How does self-disclosure reflect the way in which Katherine and Kim’s relationship develops, and how does it help them create a more trusting and intimate relationship?

 

Collaborative Teamwork

As an active group member, complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility. 

 

Use a case study to complete the following analysis.

  1. Make a list of nine learned concepts relevant to this case.  Explain enough to demonstrate understanding of each concept.

  2. Given communication situation in the case, explain the elements that need to be altered for communication to be more effective.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

Week 6

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Evaluate the different strategies for dealing with conflict.  Discuss rituals, relationship development, and self-image.

Last week we discussed social interaction and narrative theories.  In the cases we talked about Self-esteem and Self Disclosure. Sam Malone self discloses http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxgwB_mDWWk

This week we discuss chapter 6 (Performance Theories)

UC Irvine's "Dugout Captain" Zach Robinson explains and demonstrates the Anteaters' dugout rituals.

Chapter 6 Try It Out and Quiz.

Read Case 6 on religious conversation and discuss collaboratively.

Mary J. Blige - No More Drama http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZ9uCiPBIWc

Stephen Baldwin interview on his religious conversation. http://video.msn.com/video.aspx?mkt=en-us&vid=a1ed672f-f667-43fc-a8f6-abfcd9f7c61b

 

Chapter 6 Lecture:  Theories about Performance


Photo credit

 

All of us create and project images that suit our purposes in various moments.

Turner defined humans as homo performans to emphasize that humans are defined by their participation in rituals, social drama, and improvisational, creative performances in daily life.

Dramaturgy is performances in everyday life.

Performance ethnography explores how social communities are sustained and their values expressed and sometimes changed through performative practices such as rituals, ceremonies, rites of cultural practice, and oral history.

DRAMATURGICAL THEORY (PERFORMANCE IN EVERYDAY LIFE)

 

Goffman:  "It is social situations that provide the natural theatre in which all bodily displays are enacted and in which all bodily displays are read."

FRAMES are models we rely on to make sense of experience.

Frames typically reflect cultural knowledge; they vary from culture to culture.

"IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT is the process of managing setting, words, nonverbal communication, and dress in an effort to create a particular image of individuals and situations.  According to Goffman (1959), our efforts to create and project certain impressions may be either highly calculated or unintentional" (Wood, 2004, p. 119-120).   In this class, you are in-training to be a communication or business professional, so you need to pay attention to how you are managing your image and impression, particularly when making a presentation to the class.

 

 

TRY IT OUT p. 119

Describe a first date using Goffman's dramaturgical model.

  1. What impression do you want to project to your date?

  2. What definition of the situation do you want your date to accept?

  3. How do you manage your dress, gestures, and words to project that impression of yourself?

  4. How do you control the setting to support the image of yourself and the situation that you want to project to your date?

  5. What can you not do if you want to sustain the desired impression of yourself?

(Wood, 2004, p. 119)

 

 

Debate! 

Impression management is manipulative and deceitful in interpersonal communication contexts.

OR

Impression management is highly constructive because it allows us and others to behave in socially appropriate and beneficial ways.
 

Prepare to argue BOTH SIDES of the concept, idea, definition, or theory.  What are three argument(s) in favor or support of this idea AND three argument(s)) against or in disagreement of this idea.  Also think of one example or anecdote from your personal experience, for each side of the argument.  Two people may be selected to argue each side.

 

Do you think one side is right and one is wrong?  Based on your experience, do you disagree with the information in your textbook or other course materials?  What is the rationale for your position?

 

"Free speech is intended to protect the controversial and even outrageous word; and not just comforting platitudes too mundane to need protection."
General Colin Powell

 

Front stage is what is visible to an audience, whereas the back stage includes all that is not visible to an audience.  The back stage is where people behave in ways that might undermine their front stage performances.

To fully appreciate how social interaction works as drama, we must recognize both the front stage and the back stage of the theater.

Communicators know how to keep backstage behaviors out of view of the audience so they don't invalidate the front stage performance.

Knowing there is a backstage where we can let our hair down and relax helps us tolerate the sometimes stressful front stage work we do.

 

Change Your Perception

 

TRY IT OUT p. 122.  Predict what would happen in your interpersonal communication if your backstage behaviors were observed by your audience.

 

Perception is highly individualized. See if you can put yourself in another person's place. Find a totally new way to think about or describe this idea.  Can you create a different perception? 


"Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first woman she meets and then teams up with three complete strangers to kill again."
Unknown, Marin County newspaper's TV listing for "The Wizard of Oz"

 

Agree or Disagree?

 

Dramaturgical Theory  lacks validity regarding interpersonal communication because it is

  • Irrelevant to interpersonal communication.

  • Just a metaphor.

  • Too speculative.

  • An interest group, not a theory.

Communication theories and theorists vary widely in their findings and the assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.  See Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

 

"Here's to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in the square holes... the ones who see things differently -- they're not fond of rules... You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them, but the only thing you can't do is ignore them because they change things... they push the human race forward, and while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius, because the ones who are crazy enough to think that they can change the world, are the ones who do."
Steve Jobs (1955 - )

 

 

Performance Ethnography (Conquergood)

Cultural performances are an intimate, universal aspect of human experiences; thus, studying them gives us insight into cultural life.

 

Ethnography is a method of interpreting actions in a manner that generates understanding in the terms of those performing the actions.

 

Geertz describes thick description as giving a fuller account by working to understand the meanings of activities from the perspective of those engaged in them.

 

Compare and Contrast

 

Thin description is similar to brute facts, whereas thick description is more like institutional facts.

 

 

Compare:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories similar?  What is comparable, parallel, equivalent, analogous?

Contrast:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories different?  What is distinctive, a dissimilarity, unlike the other concept?

"All perception of truth is the detection of an analogy."
Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)

 

Glassie insists that "ethnography is interaction, collaboration."

Conquergood explains that in ethnography, "instead of speaking about them, one speaks to and with them."

Direct, Bodily Experience

Participant-observation is a distinctive method of ethnography.  By being not only an observer but also an active participant in a culture and sometimes even an activist on behalf of that culture.

 

Hermeneutic circle consists of near-experience and distance experience concepts and meanings.  Distance experience meanings have meaning to people outside of that particular culture or social community.

 

 

Personal Narrative

Some performance studies scholars are interested in understanding and performing personal and oral histories, including ones told by regular people in everyday contexts about ordinary events.

 

Tell a Story

Tell a story from your experience, or relay a story you've heard or read.  Use the story as a case study to make sense of the course content as it relates to interpersonal communication. 


"Peterson and Langellier  note that personal narratives are NOT objective representations of experiences or identities.  A narrative is "a strategic practice in its occurrence."  When  we tell stories about ourselves and our experiences, we do so to achieve some effect in a particular context:  We may want to persuade others to see us as adventurous, honest, loyal, engaging, and so forth.  We may intend to convince others that our view of a situation is the correct one.  We may want to convince others that we live interesting live.  We may want others to regard us as standing up for the right values.  We may want others to gain some insight into experiences we have had but they have not.

(o. 128)

Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


"Most of the major advances in social life have come about because people told new stories that contested popular views and established ideas about life" (Wood, p. 113).

 

Personal narratives entail testimony which consists of statements based on personal experience about what someone, some activity, or something is, did, believes, feels like, or means.

 

 

Agree or Disagree?

Arthur Frank (1995) said that "listening is hard, but it is also a fundamental moral act."
 

Communication theories and theorists vary widely in their findings and the assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.  See Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

 

"Here's to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in the square holes... the ones who see things differently -- they're not fond of rules... You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them, but the only thing you can't do is ignore them because they change things... they push the human race forward, and while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius, because the ones who are crazy enough to think that they can change the world, are the ones who do."
Steve Jobs (1955 - )

 

 

Mini Speech

Prepare an oral presentation on the following topic.

One or more students may be selected to present OR one student from each group may be asked to present.  If we run out of time before everyone can present orally, there will be opportunities to do other mini-speeches later in the term

 

"Frank (1995) notes that the core morality of personal narratives is a dual responsibility to self and others. . . when the teller of a story and the listener accept this responsibility, each has the potential to enter the other's life and to be changed by the entry" (p. 129).

 

"The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public."
George Jessel

 

Change Your Perception

Perception is highly individualized. See if you can put yourself in another person's place. Find a totally new way to think about or describe this idea.  Can you create a different perception? 

 

See Try It Out, p. 129  Talk with a person who is very different from you.  Write a one-page identity statement.


"Transported to a surreal landscape, a young girl kills the first woman she meets and then teams up with three complete strangers to kill again."
Unknown, Marin County newspaper's TV listing for "The Wizard of Oz"

 

Knowledge Checklist

Consider this list of concepts.  Imagine that you have a test where you have to write a paragraph about each item.  You need to do the following:

(a.) define the concept in your own words,
(b.) give a real or hypothetical example, and
(c.) explain how the principle can be used in effective interpersonal communication. 

How many do you know?

 

Misuse of ethnography.

Performance as political action.

Gender comes into being only as it is performed.

Without social conventions that prescribe masculinity and femininity, we could not perform gender.

Gender reflects a reiteration of a norm.

 

Agree or Disagree?
 

"If you say a word enough, it becomes you" (p. 136).

 

Communication theories and theorists vary widely in their findings and the assumptions they make about human nature, knowledge, communication, and the goals of the theory.  See Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

 

"Here's to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in the square holes... the ones who see things differently -- they're not fond of rules... You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them, but the only thing you can't do is ignore them because they change things... they push the human race forward, and while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius, because the ones who are crazy enough to think that they can change the world, are the ones who do."
Steve Jobs (1955 - )

 


 

Review chapter 6

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

back stage

In dramaturgy, behaviors and appearances that are not visible to audiences (or others in an interactional situation).

dramaturgical model

The view of everyday life in which social interaction is performance, settings of interaction are stages, people are actors, and viewers are audiences.

dramaturgy

In communication theory, a theory that describes, explains, and predicts human behavior in terms of dramatic actions and settings. Also called dramaturgical theory.

ethnography

A qualitative method of research that interprets actions so as to generate understanding consistent with the frameworks of those who perform the actions.

frame

In dramaturgy, the ways people define situations for themselves and others.

front stage

In dramaturgy, behaviors and appearances that are visible to audiences (or others in an interactional situation).

hermeneutic circle

A process that consists of (1) meanings of behaviors and practices that reflect the understandings of those who are behaving, (2) meanings that are removed from the actors but represent the understandings of someone studying or viewing actors, and (3) translating the former into terms understandable in the vocabularies and experiences of the latter. Ethnographers move within the hermeneutic circle as they try to understand and represent practices that initially are unfamiliar to them.

impression management

In Goffman's dramaturgical theory, the process of managing settings, words, nonverbal communication, dress, and appearance in an effort to give others a specific view of oneself.

narrative

Telling a story about experience, identity, and so forth. Narratives are not necessarily objective representations or re-creations of experiences and identities.

participant-observation

A method often used in ethnographic research, in which the researcher-observer is also a participant in the situation being studied.

performance ethnography

A presentation that is based on intimate acquaintance with and understanding of people and experiences in a specific culture or social community and that seeks to make those people and experiences knowable to audiences who are not part of the indigenous groups.

performativity

The extent to which performance realizes (or makes real) identities and experiences. It is both the doing (the act of performing) and what is done (the reiteration or challenging of social norms in performance).

personal story

An account that announces how people see themselves and how they wish to be seen by others in an organization.

testimony

A statement based on personal experience about some action, experience, person, event, or other phenomenon.

thick description

An ethnographic method that describes cultural practices from the point of view of people who are members of the particular culture or social community being studied.

 


Case 6 Thought and Reflection

  1. What was it about John’s behavior that made Susan so uncomfortable?

  2. Have you ever had a situation where you still felt like "you" on the inside, but others began treating you differently? How did this affect your self-image?

  3. Imagine six months from now. How will Susan and John interact together? What factors might affect the future of this relationship? Imagine a year from now. Do you think John will be "back to normal" with his other family members and friends?

  4. Put yourself in Susan’s position. How would you interact with your friends when John is around? Put yourself in John’s position. Are there ways you can communicate the changes in your life without causing your family or friend discomfort? If so, how? Can discomfort ever be positive in a relation

  5. Have you ever taken a position or held a belief that put you at odds with the majority of your peers? If so, how did you handle it? How did they react?

  6. What were the turning points in John’s relationships with his family? His friends? What types of turning points could occur that would strengthen or weaken his current relationships?

Week 7

 

LEARNING OUTCOME: 

(a) Illustrate how verbal and nonverbal communication affect relationships.

(b) Apply theories of rules and constructivism to communication in blended families and communication about sex and marriage.

Read and discuss chapter 7

Relationship Rules http://www.expertvillage.com/video/127860_rules-of-relationships.htm

Constructivist Learning http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F00R3pOXzuk

Vgotsky http://www.metacafe.com/watch/yt-A_205mQSLcA/the_true_history_of_vygotskian_social_constructivism/

Complete Chapter 7 quiz and one Try It Out assignment.  Add quiz results and the Try-It-Out to portfolio.

Read and discuss Case 11 Becoming a Family (Divorce and blended families) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HI2ALjJaXQ & 12 Can We Talk? (Talking about sex and marriage).

Abstinence http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=sex%20and%20marriage&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wv#q=sex+and+marriage+today+show&hl=en&emb=0

Premarital sex (MSNBC) http://video.msn.com/video.aspx?mkt=en-us&vid=a3951d6a-bb36-4df3-a364-f9f25750f0e0

Chapter 7 Lecture  Theories About How People Construct Meaning


Photo credit. 

 

Rules theory and constructivism extend the premises of symbolic interactionism by providing more detailed accounts of how individuals construct meanings.

 

Rules Theory is the Coordinated Management of Meaning

 

Rules theory is concerned with how humans construct meaning for their communication.

Coordinated management of meaning (COMM.):  We use communication rules to coordinate meanings in interaction with others.

 

CMM is an interpretive theory that assumes human communication is rule guided and rule following.

 

Hierarchy of Meanings

Pearce and Cronen believe that we rely on a hierarchy of meanings to interpret experiences.  The hierarchy consists of multiple levels of meaning, and each level is contextualized by higher levels in the hierarchy.

 

Knowledge Checklist

Consider this list of concepts.  Imagine that you have a test where you have to write a paragraph about each item.  You need to do the following:

(a.) define the concept in your own words,
(b.) give a real or hypothetical example, and
(c.) explain how the principle can be used in effective interpersonal communication. 

How many do you know?

 

  1. Content (Lowest level.)

  2. Speech Act (Communication is action.)

  3. Episode (A recurring routine of interaction that is structured by rules and that has boundaries.)

  4. Relationships (The somewhat scripted ways we interact with particular others.)

  5. Autobiographies (An individual's view of himself or herself that both shapes and is shaped by communication.)

  6. Cultural Patterns ( An understanding of speech acts, episodes, relationships, and autobiographies that is shared by particular social groups or societies.)

 

 

Coffee and Conversation

 

Try it Out p. 145

 

Discuss an interpersonal communication story and apply the questions.

 

1.  What did you regard as the content?

2.  How did you define the speech act?

3.  What did you consider the episode?

4.  How did you perceive the relationship?

5.  How do you describe your autobiography?

6.  What cultural patterns can you identify that influenced this specific communication?

In pairs, discuss an example, anecdote, story, or case study.   Discuss what you know and what you think with another person in the class. 

"Saying what we think gives us a wider conversational range than saying what we know."
Cullen Hightower

 

Rules allow us to make sense of social interaction and guide our own communication so that we coordinate meanings with others.

 

 

Write About This!

When you finish, you may want to talk to person sitting next to you about what you wrote.  Please submit what you wrote to me at the end of class.

 

WRITE TWO RULES FOR EACH ROLE:
ROLES:  (a) Professors, (b) high school teachers, (c) college students.

1.  Constitutive rules define what counts as what for example, what counts as support, meanness, joking, praise).

2.  Regulative rules guide interaction. In CMM theory, a rule that tells us when it's appropriate to do a certain thing and what we should do next in an interaction.

 

"The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth."
Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)

 

 

Logical force describes the felt obligation to act.

Sometimes we feel we must do something because of prior actions, such as promises we've made.

 

Question!?!?

 

Is CMM a valid theory you can use in your everyday interpersonal communication?

 

Talk about it with the person next to you or team members in your group.  What do you think?!?!  Come up with one collaborative answer and write it down.  Make sure the person who write the collaborative answer is NOT the person who served as recorder in the last session.  The recorder will select the person to report the answer to the whole class. 

 

"I respect faith, but doubt is what gets you an education."
Wilson Mizner (1876 - 1933)

Photo credit.

 

Constructivism (Kelly) focuses on cognitive processes that we use to create meaning.

 

Compare and Contrast

 

DO p. 152 INDIVIDUALLY THINK AND WRITE.  Complete the Role Category Questionnaire.  (approximately 10 minutes)

 

Compare:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories similar?  What is comparable, parallel, equivalent, analogous?

Contrast:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories different?  What is distinctive, a dissimilarity, unlike the other concept?

"All perception of truth is the detection of an analogy."
Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)

 

Cognitive schema--knowledge structure.

Prototypes are the broadest cognitive structures, ideal, or optimal examples of categories of people, situations, objects.

 

Personal constructs--the second-broadest knowledge structures are building blocks.  Examples would be intelligent-unintelligent, uninteresting-interesting.

 

Stereotypes are predictive generalizations about how a person will behave.

 

 

Compare and Contrast

 

Scripts are guides to action, much like the episodes that we read about in CMM.

 

Compare:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories similar?  What is comparable, parallel, equivalent, analogous?

Contrast:  In what ways are the two ideas, concepts, or theories different?  What is distinctive, a dissimilarity, unlike the other concept?

"All perception of truth is the detection of an analogy."
Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)

 

Complete Try It Out on page 155.

Think about a relatively  common interpersonal communication activity in your everyday life.  Answer the following questions.

 

What prototypes do you apply in interpreting the activity and other people?

What personal constructs are salient in your thinking about the other people?

What stereotypes do you make about how specific others will act?  What is the basis of your predictive generalizations?

What script do you follow in this activity?  Has your script ever not worked?  What happened?

 

As an active group member, complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility. 

Write a summary:  One person needs to record the group's decision on paper--please use blue or black ink--but the recorder CANNOT be the same person who was the recorder during the last group activity.

Responsibilities in a Small Group*

  1. Be committed to the group’s goals

  2. Fulfill individual assignments

  3. Avoid interpersonal conflicts

  4. Encourage full participation

  5. Keep the discussion on track

*Lucas, S. E.  (2004).  The art of public speaking.  (8th ed.)  Boston, MA:  McGraw-Hill.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

 

Cognitive Complexity

  • Personal constructs are the centerpiece of constructivist theory building.

  • Constructivists believe that people vary in the complexity, or sophistication, of their interpretive processes.

  • Differentiation is measured by the number of distinct interpretations an individual uses to perceive and describe others.

  • Abstraction is the extent to which a person interprets others in terms of internal motives, personality traits, and character.

  • Organization is the degree to which a person notices and is able to make sense of contradictory behaviors.

  • Person-centered --cognitively complex people are more capable of engaging in sensitive communication that is tailored to particular others.

  • The research inspired by constructivist theory is impressive and growing

Mini Speech

Prepare an oral presentation on the following topic.

 

Constructivist Theory lacks internal validity, has weak utility, and neglects communication.

 

One or more students may be selected to present OR one student from each group may be asked to present.  If we run out of time before everyone can present orally, there will be opportunities to do other mini-speeches later in the term.

 

"The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public."
George Jessel

Review chapter 7

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

abstraction

One of three measures of cognitive complexity; the extent to which an individual interprets others in terms of internal motives, personality traits, and character as opposed to more concrete factors such as actions, physical appearance, and so forth.

autobiography

One of six levels in the hierarchy of meanings; an individual's view of himself or herself that both shapes communication and is shaped by communication.

cognitive complexity

In constructivist theory, the degree to which an individual's interpretive processes are differentiated, abstract, and organized.

cognitive schema (pl. schemata)

A knowledge structure on which individuals rely to interpret experience and construct meanings.  There are four types of cognitive schemata: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.

constitutive rule

In CMM theory, a rule that defines what counts as what in communication (for example, what counts as support, meanness, joking, praise).

constructivism

The point of view that humans create meanings by relying on four basic cognitive schemata, or knowledge structures. There are four types of cognitive schemata: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.

content

One of six levels in the hierarchy of meanings; the denotative or literal meanings of words in communication.

coordinated management of meanings (CMM)

See rules theory.

cultural pattern

One of six levels in the hierarchy of meanings; understandings of speech acts, episodes, relationships, and autobiographies that are shared by some groups and some societies.

differentiation

One of three measures of cognitive complexity; the number of distinct interpretations (constructs) an individual uses to perceive and describe others. More cognitively complex individuals use more constructs to interpret others than do less cognitively complex individuals.

episode

One of six levels in the hierarchy of meaning; a recurring routine of interaction that is structured by rules and has boundaries.

hierarchy of meanings

In rules theory (coordinated management of meaning), the multiple levels of meaning, each contextualized by higher levels.  We rely on the hierarchy of meanings to interpret communication.

logical force

In CMM theory, the degree to which a person feels he or she must act or cannot act in a situation.

organization

One of three dimensions of cognitive complexity; the extent to which a person notices and is able to make sense of contradictory behaviors.

person-centeredness

The ability to tailor communication to particular individuals with whom we interact. Individuals who are highly complex cognitively seem capable of more person-centered communication than do less cognitively complex individuals.

personal construct

One of four cognitive schemata used to interpret experience; a bipolar scale of description (for example, happy-unhappy).

prototype

One of four cognitive schemata; an ideal or optimal example of a category of person, situation, object, and so on.

regulative rule

In CMM theory, a rule that tells us when it's appropriate to do a certain thing and what we should do next in an interaction.

relationship

In rules theory, one of six levels in the hierarchy of meanings; a scripted form of interaction that we engage in with a particular other.

rule

Regularity in behavior that is consistent within a particular situation or situations but is not assumed to be universal. Rules are guides for behavior, not determinants of it.

rules theory

The point of view that socially constructed and learned rules guide communication. Also called coordinated management of meaning (CMM) theory.

script

One of four cognitive schemata; a routine, or action sequence, that reflects our understanding of how a particular interaction is supposed to proceed.

speech act

In rules theory, one of six levels in the hierarchy of meaning; an action that is performed by speaking (for example, pleading, joking, apologizing, inviting).

stereotype

One of four cognitive schemata; a predictive generalization about a person's behavior that is based on general knowledge about the group to which we classify the person as belonging.

strange loop

In CMM theory, an internal conversation (intrapersonal communication) by means of which the individual is trapped in a destructive pattern of thinking and/or acting.

 

Case 11 Thought and Reflection

  1. What makes a group of people a "real family"? In your view, which of the groups in this case study are "real families"? Why so?

  2. A theoretical perspective known as relational dialectics claims that relationships are organized around opposing tensions, or pulls in opposite directions. What simultaneous dialectical tensions or pulls can you identify in Lonnie’s account of the development of her blended families?

  3. What are the major turning points, significant points of positive or negative change, in the development of Lonnie’s blended families?

  4. Lonnie’s blended family with Gail and Tim developed differently from he blended family with Gene and Victoria. What factors contribute to the different developmental paths these two blended families experienced?

  5. Rituals are recurring interaction events, formalized or informal, that hold importance to their participants. What rituals can you identify in this case study? How did rituals change as Lonnie’s families changed? Why were some rituals able to adapt to new circumstances while other rituals were not?

Case 12 Thought and Reflection

  1. Based on what you’ve learned about their relationship, how would you characterize Rich and Sarah’s relationship and their communication? What is likely to happen when Rich goes back to talk to Sarah? Model how the conversation might go.

  2. Do you think Shawn is a man or a woman? Why?

  3. How open and honest are Sarah, Amanda, and Micki with one other?

  4. What concerns do people have when talking about or negotiating sexual limits? What other ways might couples have the initial discussion about safer sex? How do/can people talk about sex when they don’t know each other very well?

  5. How are Rich and Sarah’s discussions shaped by Sarah’s disclosures?

  6. Are there questions you have about HIV/AIDS/STDs or contraception? What resources can you identify on your campus or in your area to answer these questions?

Week 8

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Compare and contrast theories about interpersonal dynamics.

Talk about upcoming core assessment paper (media influence on interpersonal communication).

 

Links to

Handouts (Note Template): http://JoanAitken.org/CA301/Handouts/

Content Analysis Articles:

http://JoanAitken.org/CA301/Private/

Fine Art Analysis:  Paintings about Relationships

Key principles of chapter 8:  Theories about interpersonal dynamics.

Create a Mobile

Touch Avoidance Measure

      1.  ANTICIPATORY SET

Fine Art Analysis:  What does this painting say about interpersonal communication?

http://www.fineartbymariana.com/show-image/384504/Mariana-Barnes,-PhD/Friends.jpg

 

Friends, Mariana Barnes

http://www.fineartbymariana.com/show-image/384504/Mariana-Barnes,-PhD/Friends.jpg

"The symbolic patchwork Quilt-like paintings convey movement through the vibrant colors energizing the various dynamic patterns."

 

2.  LEARNING OUTCOME:  Compare and contrast theories about interpersonal dynamics.

 

 

“The Conversation” by Phil Morin

galleryofart.files.wordpress.com

http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/honeymoon-sunil-mehta.jpg

http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/honeymoon-sunil-mehta.jpg

Honeymoon Painting by Sunil Mehta

http://fineartamerica.com/watermark.html?id=305516

Couple to Be -- Wolfgang Karl

http://fineartamerica.com/watermark.html?id=305516

http://www.demandmore.org/images/lovers%20-%20magritte.jpg

The Lovers, Rene Magritte http://www.demandmore.org/images/lovers%20-%20magritte.jpg

 

http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/honeymoon-sunil-mehta.jpg

http://fineartamerica.com/watermark.html?id=305516

http://www.demandmore.org/images/lovers%20-%20magritte.jpg

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Group 4

“The Conversation” by Phil Morin

Honeymoon Painting, Sunil Mehta

Couple to Be, Wolfgang Karl

The Lovers, Rene Magritte

 

3.  Input

 

Chapter 8 Lecture:   Theories About Interpersonal Dynamics


Photo credit. 

 

 

 

Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson proposed interactional AKA pragmatic theory.

 

Consider how your perception and processing may affect the way you communicate interpersonally.

 

Look at the dancer: http://www.news.com.au/perthnow/story/0,21598,22492511-5005375,00.html

 

Contexts originated with von Bertalanffy, who pioneered the idea under the name of general systems theory.

 

Systems Theory

All life forms, social as well as biological, can be understood only as complex, organized wholes called systems.

  • All parts are interrelated.

  • Systems are organized wholes.

  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts.  For example, the family is more than each indvidual alone. Openness is the extent to which a system affects and is affected by factors and processes outside of it.  Most human relationships are fairly open.

  • Systems strive for, but never achieve, equilibrium.  Absolute balance isn't possible for living systems.

Create a Mobile
Visually demonstrate systems theory.

 

All life forms, social as well as biological, can be understood only as complex, organized wholes called systems.

  • All parts are interrelated.

  • Systems are organized wholes.

  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts.  Openness is the extent to which a system affects and is affected by factors and processes outside of it.  Most human relationships are fairly open.

  • Systems strive for, but never achieve, equilibrium.  Absolute balance isn't possible for living systems

  • All communication is either symmetrical (reflects equal power) or

    complementary (reflects different levels of power).

Levels of Meaning

We are always communicating (one cannot not communicate).

1.  Content meaning is basic.

2.  Relationship meaning is about the relationship between people. Beck calls the relationship level of communication "hidden meanings."  Hidden meanings are very powerful aspects of relationshi systems because they express and sustain the emotional climate between people.

3.  Metacommunication is communication about the communication (commentary on the content level).

 

Punctuation is the way communication episodes start and stop.  Communication tends to go smoothly as long as all parties agree on punctuation.

Communication and Power

All communication is either symmetrical (reflects equal power) or

complementary (reflects different levels of power).

The Palo Alto group worked with troubled families, where power comes in many forms (passive-aggression, games, manipulation, and is often central and continuous in family interaction.

Parallel relationships are those in which power is equal overall but distributed so that each individual has primary authority or control in certain realms.

 

Critical assessment of interactional theory:

  • Theory is not testable.

  • Theory overemphasizes power between communicators.

  • Theory ignores intent.

 

Dialectical tensions:

  1. Integration versus Separation

  2. Stability versus Change

  3. Expression versus Privacy

 

Dialectical Theory (Baxter and Rawlins)

 

Dialectics are contradictory or opposing tensions.  There can be periods in which the contradictory impulses of dialectics do NOT generate tension.

 

Contradiction is conflict, opposition, contrast, or discrepancy between two things.

 

Process is that change always exists and moves the relationship forward.

 

Integration versus Separation

Stability versus Change

Expression versus Privacy

 

Our Response

  • Selection:  Satisfy one need and ignore or deny the contradictory one.

  • Separation:  Satisfy one need in one situation and other in other situation.

  • Neutralization:  Compromise that doesn't fully satisfy.

  • BEST is Reframing:  Transforms perceptions into positive.

DIALECTICAL TENSION

 

5.  Check for Understanding

Quiz: Wood, Communication Theories in Action - An Introduction 3e, Chapter 8


1

A system is

a.

a collection of independent parts

b.

a group of parts that act separately to function

c.

a group of interrelated parts that interact to function as a whole

d.

an unorganized collection of parts

e.

a collection of parts that are proximate

 

2

When Dan is late for a date, Gina snarls, "I'm going to buy you a watch." The relationship level of meaning is

a.

Dan is late

b.

Dan doesn't own a watch

c.

Gina is irritated by Dan's lateness

d.

Gina is going to buy Dan a watch

e.

Dan doesn't care about Gina

 

3

In response to Gina's comment, Dan says, "Gee, the way you said that makes me think you're upset. Is that what you meant by your comment?" Dan's communication is an example of

a.

content level of meaning

b.

metacommunication

c.

systemic openness

d.

homeostasis

e.

dynamic equilibrium

 

4

Karen and Dan want to spend time with their other friends, but they also want private time. Which dialectical tension are they experiencing?

a.

autonomy connection

b.

inclusion seclusion

c.

equality inequality

d.

openness closedness

e.

revelation concealment

Integration versus Separation

Stability versus Change

Expression versus Privacy


5

To resolve their tension, Dan and Karen give up their private time. This resolution is called __________.

a.

selection

In dialectical theory, one means of managing relational dialectics that involves satisfying one need in a dialectic and ignoring or denying the contradictory one.

b.

separation

In dialectical theory, one means of managing relational dialectics that attempts to meet both contradictory needs in a dialectic by satisfying each one in separate situations or spheres of relational life.

c.

reframing

In dialectical theory, a method of managing relational dialectics that involves transforming the perception of dialectical needs as opposing, and reframing them as unified, complementary, or otherwise allied.

d.

neutralization

In dialectical theory, the method of responding to the tension of relational dialectics by means of a compromise that meets both dialectical needs to a degree but satisfies neither need fully.

e.

equilibrium

A balance never really possible according to Systems Theory.

 

6

All parts of a system are interrelated.

True   
False   
 

 

7

Interactional theory has been criticized for neglecting communicators' intents.

True   
False   
Other criticisms are that it is not testable and the theory overemphasizes power between communicators.

 

8

Dialectical theory maintains that tensions in relationships should be removed.

True   
False   
Tension can move a relationship positively through change.

 

9

Dialectical tensions are in individuals.

True   
False   
Dialectical tensions are a normal part of relationships.

 

10

The most central friction in personal relationships is the dialectic of openness closedness.

True   
False   
No, the most friction comes from
Integration versus Separation

 

 

Additional Learning Activities

 

Try It Out p. 168 

 

Pair up according to a television drama or comedy.  Both of you have to know the show.

 

Title: Activity 2 Instructions: Try the following exercise after reviewing Chapter 8.

Question 1: Use the concept of levels of meaning to gain new insight into relationships between characters on a television show.

a.  Concentrate on a single relationship in a program that airs at least weekly.

b.  Analyze the metacommunication.

c.  What is expressed and negotiated in terms of affection, respect, and power between the characters.

 

You can perform the same analysis on communication in your own life by focusing on the relationship level of meaning in interaction.
 

Try It
Out

 

TALK or write for five minutes

Julia Wood seems to particularly value Dialectical Theory.  In fact, she wrote a book on interpersonal communication, which weaves this theory throughout the book.  As a pair or group, discuss Dialectical Theory. 

  • What are key elements of the theory?

  • In what ways do you agree or disagree with elements of the theory?

  • How can you use and apply this theory to the interpersonal communication of your everyday life?

"The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth."
Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)

 

DIALECTICAL TENSION

 

 

PUSH - PULL

Review Chapter 8

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

complementary

In interactional theory, of or pertaining to a form of communication and a type of relationship in which power is unequal between individuals.

content meaning

One of two levels of meaning identified by interactional theorists; the literal significance, or denotative meaning, of communication.

dialectical moments

In dialectical theory, momentary periods of equilibrium between opposing dialectics in the larger pattern of continuous change that marks relationships.

dialectical theory

The point of view that certain tensions between contradictory desires are inherent in personal relationships.

dialectics

In dialectical theory, points of contradiction that cause tension and impel change in relationships. Three relational dialectics have been identified: autonomy -connection, openness-closedness, and novelty-routine.

general systems theory

Theory originated by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, which claims that all living organisms are dynamic wholes that function as a result of organized interaction among parts.

homeostasis

A steady state; equilibrium; balance. General systems theory claims that living systems (relationships, for example) strive for, but never fully sustain, homeostasis. Dialectical theory, on the other hand, claims that continuous change is the very nature of relationships.

interactional theory

A theory built on the premise that communication and relationships are systems in which meaning is established through contexts, punctuation, and content and relationship levels of meaning.

metacommunication

Communication about communication.

neutralization

In dialectical theory, the method of responding to the tension of relational dialectics by means of a compromise that meets both dialectical needs to a degree but satisfies neither need fully.

openness

In general systems theory, the extent to which a system affects and is affected by factors and processes outside of it. Living systems may be more or less open to outside influence and more or less influential on their contexts.

parallel relationships

In interactional theory, relationships in which individuals have equal power overall but power is distributed so that each person has greater power in particular spheres of activity.

process

The quality of being ongoing, in flux, ever changing. Communication is a process.

punctuation

In interactional theory, subjective designations of the start and stop of particular communication episodes.

reframing

In dialectical theory, a method of managing relational dialectics that involves transforming the perception of dialectical needs as opposing, and reframing them as unified, complementary, or otherwise allied.

relationship meaning

In interactional theory, one of two levels of meaning in communication; what communication reflects about feelings and relationships between people. Relationship-level meanings may express liking, power, and/or responsiveness.

selection

In dialectical theory, one means of managing relational dialectics that involves satisfying one need in a dialectic and ignoring or denying the contradictory one.

separation

In dialectical theory, one means of managing relational dialectics that attempts to meet both contradictory needs in a dialectic by satisfying each one in separate situations or spheres of relational life.

symmetrical

In interactional theory, of or pertaining to a form of communication and relationships in which power is equal between partners.

 

Case 7 Thought and Reflection

According to Baxter (1988) there are at least three dialectical tensions inherent in all relationships:

  • autonomy/connection,

  • novelty/predictability, and

  • openness/closedness.

 

Identify the dialectical tensions apparent in Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship. Can you find specific examples of each of the dialectical tensions in the relationship? Which dialectical tension is most predominant in Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship?

  1. Relationship partners, knowingly or unknowingly, use strategies to deal with the dialectical tensions in their relationship. What are the strategies researchers have identified for managing dialectical tensions (Baxter, 1988, Baxter-Montgomery, 1998; Wood, 1995, 1997). Which of these strategies did Jennifer and Ashley use to manage the dialectical tensions in their relationship? Which dialectical tensions did these strategies address? What was the principle dialectical strategy used to manage the openness/closedness dialectic in their relationship?

  2. Dialectical tensions are often experienced in varying degrees of intensity and at different times by each partner in a relationship. Find specific examples of Jennifer and Ashley experiencing the tensions to different degrees or at different times in their relationship. How did their different experiences of the dialectical tensions lead to conflict in their relationship?

  3. How relationship partners respond to dialectical tensions influences relationship development. How did Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship develop (decline) and change as a result of their responses to the dialectical tensions? What dialectical tension did you feel was most important for Ashley and Jennifer to be able to maintain their relationship? What strategies were most effective in maintaining Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship?

  4. Dialectical tensions are interrelated in personal relationships. How does the autonomy/connection tension affect the openness/closedness tension, and vice versa, in Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship? How does the novelty/predictability tension affect the openness/closedness tension, and vice versa, in Jennifer and Ashley’s relationship?

 

Week 9

 

Chapter 9 Lecture

 

Theories about Communication and the Evolution of Relationships


Photo credit. 

 

I Can Change http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLwZxIeJa_Y
   ------John Legend

Hmm…

Snoop talking
Hey yo nephew check this out man
Now I know you got that bad chick right there
You aint even tripping off of her
But she doing all of that for you
She got this, she got that
She’s off the hizzle
I mean when you find one like that
You got to make that change man
Cuz they don’t come too often
And when they do come
You gotta be smart enough to know when to change
Like Sam Cooke say change gon’ come nephew
And you better believe that

As I look back on all that I've done to you
My biggest regrets
The things that I never could do
I see the light now baby it's shining through
Gotta give up the game
Yeah I got some changin’ to do

I won’t get high if you want it
Get that straight
9 to 5 if you want it
Keep my ass home at night if you want it wewe
Whatever you need me to do

When you talk I’ma listen
Give you all that attention you missing
Girl I swear I’ma handle my business
Just like a real man should do

I can change
I can change (you know I can change baby)
I can change
For you (you know I can stop baby)
I can change (you know I change baby)
I can change
I can change
For you (you know I can stop baby)

I’ll give up all the places I used to go
Stay out the club
Stay home because I’m with you
I’ll give up all those girls that I used to know
They don’t compare
Baby I swear it’s the truth (you know it’s the truth baby)

So I’m through with the women
Yeah that’s right
I give up on the pimpin’
Girl I’m gonna repent from my sinnin’
If that’s what you want me to do

I’ll get right if you want it
Go to church
Get baptized if you want it
Girl you opened my eyes and I’m gonna
Be much better for you

Baby believe me
Baby believe me

I can change (you know I can change baby)
I can change (know I can change baby)
I can change
For you
I can change
I can change
I can change
For you

Snoop’s Rap
Take me to the river
And baptize my soul
I’m so outta control
Needing someone to hold
Man it’s cold
I aint been clubbin’, drinkin’, or smokin’
I’m focused
Bowin’ down every night prayin’ and hopin’

I’m trying to figure out a way
But I just don’t know how to say
But I’m rearrangin’
Hopefully I’m changin’
And you can see that
Baby cuz it’s hard for me
Kinda sorta odd for me
But aint nothing to it
If you need me to do it
I guess…

I can change
I can change
I can change
For you (I’ll give up on the pimpin’ for you)
I can change
I can change
I can change
For you (sing it again y’all)

I can change
I can change
I can change
For you
I can change
I can change
I can change
For you

You know I can stop baby

Gotta believe me (you gotta believe me baby)
Gotta believe me (mmm yeah)
I telling the truth

You know I can stop baby

Gotta believe me (believe me)
Gotta believe me (believe me yeah)
I’m telling the truth

Get baptized if you want it
This time I mean it

Gotta believe me (this time I mean it)
Gotta believe me
I'm telling the truth

 

Coffee and Conversation

You find yourself refreshed by the presence of cheerful people. Why not make an honest effort to confer that pleasure on others? Half the battle is gained if you never allow yourself to say anything gloomy.
Lydia M. Child

What is the effect of a cheerful interpersonal communicator?
How can you become a cheerful interpersonal communicator?

 

 

I.  Uncertainty reduction theory is a laws approach that includes axioms.

  A.  Uncertainty reduction theory relies on the belief that human behavior is predictable.

     1.  Laws-based explanations assume that human behavior is the result of invariant laws.

     2.  Laws-based explanations assume human behavior is determined by external stimuli.

  B.  Axioms are statements that are presumed to be true on face value and do not require proof.

     1.  Uncertainty reduction theory includes 7 axioms as its foundation.

 

  • Given the high level of uncertainty present at the onset of the entry phase of relations, as the amount of verbal communication between strangers increases, the level of uncertainty for each person in the relationship decreases.  As uncertainty is further reduced, the amount of verbal communication increases.

  • As nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases, uncertainty levels decrease in an initial interaction situation.  In addition, decreases in uncertainty level cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness.

  • High levels of uncertainty cause increases in information-seeking behavior.  As uncertainty levels decline, information-seeking behavior decreases.

  • High levels of uncertainty in a relationship cause decreases in the intimacy level of communication content.  Low levels of uncertainty produce higher levels of intimacy.

  • High levels of uncertainty produce high rates of reciprocity in self-disclosing communication.  Low levels of uncertainty produce low reciprocity rates.

  • Similarities between persons reduce uncertainty; dissimilarities produce increases in uncertainty.

  • Increases in uncertainty level produce decreases in liking.  Decreases in uncertainty level produce increases in liking.

     2.  The most basic claim of the theory is that uncertainty is uncomfortable so people communicate to reduce uncertainty.

     3.  These same axioms also appear to apply to intercultural communication.

 

Agree or Disagree? 
 

Some critics argue that uncertainty reduction theory is inappropriate for describing, explaining, and predicting human behavior. Explain the basis of this criticism, identify your position, and explain why you agree or disagree with the criticism.

 

 

II.  There are two major criticisms of uncertainty reduction theory.

  A.  The theory is narrow in scope.

     1.  It focuses only on uncertainty, which is not the only influence on how relationships develop.

     2.  Other influences may be more important in the growth and decay of relationships.

  B.  The theory is invalid.

     1.  Critics assert that some of the basic axioms on which the theory rests are invalid.

     2.  If axioms are not true, then the laws derived from axioms are not reliable.

  C.  Proponents of uncertainty reduction theory admit that some of the theory's axioms are of dubious validity.

     1.  Proponents say the theory can be developed and refined to be valid.

     2.  Defenses of uncertainty reduction theory have been neither strong nor convincing.

Question!?!?

Do you believe uncertainty can be eliminated in a relationship? Should it be eliminated? Provide specific examples to support your positions.

Talk about it with the person next to you or team members in your group.  What do you think?!?!  Have one person act as the recorder, who will write notes and email them to everyone BEFORE the next class meeting.  Make sure the person who write the collaborative answer is NOT the person who served as recorder in the last session.  The recorder will select the person to report the answer to the whole class. 

 

"I respect faith, but doubt is what gets you an education."
Wilson Mizner (1876 - 1933)

Photo credit.

 

III.  Social exchange theory is actually a group of theories that share three common assumptions.

  A.  Humans evaluate their relationships by making cost-benefit analyses designed to maximize individual profit.

     1.  We measure rewards, which are positively valued phenomena we get from being in relationships.

     2.  We measure costs, which are negatively valued phenomena we incur from being in relationships.

     3.  The net outcome (O) of a relationship is rewards minus costs:  R - C.

 
Photo credit

B.  We use standards of comparison to assess the meaning of net outcomes of relationships.

  C.  People prefer equitable relationships to inequitable relationships.

 

     1.  Equity concerns whether a relationship is fair over time.

     2.  Both feeling under-benefited and over-benefited in a relationship cause dissatisfaction and relational stress.

What is your ethical position?  Research says this statement is false:  In most (50%+) dual-worker families home chores and child care are shared equally by both adult partners.

 

     3.  Equity in terms of housework and caregiving is of primary importance in most dual-worker families.

 

Apply Research Findings

Can you think of an example or story from your personal experience that describes this theory?

Define social exchange theory and its central claims. Next, discuss the primary criticisms of exchange theory that have been made by scholars. Finally, offer your personal experiences relevant to this theory.

 

"Research findings are reviewed by others through analytical processes.  They are the closest thing we have to the truth."
Joan E. Aitken

IV.  There are four major criticisms of social exchange theories.

  A.  The theory has little heuristic value.

  B.  The theory is not testable.

  C.  The theory is inappropriate for humans and human relationships.

  D.  Research fails to confirm some of the key claims of social exchange theories.

 

V.  Developmental theories focus on how relationships develop, grow, and decline over time.

  A.  First generation developmental theories had serious limitations.

     1.  They were excessively and inappropriately linear.

     2.  They implied an inevitability to relational development.

     3.  They did not include, nor apply to, a number of intimate relationships, such as gay and lesbian commitments.

     4.  They focused on external, observable phenomena to define stages in relational life.

  B.  Second generation developmental models are more sophisticated and useful.  James Honeycutt emphasized that relationships develop not because of events themselves, but because of how we interpret events.

 

 

 C.  Individual have "imagined trajectories," which are their understandings and expectations of the typical paths relationships follow.

     1.  They are a type of knowledge schemata that guides how we think about what is happening between us and others.

     2.  Relationships may also have turning points, which exist when we interpret certain relational events or moments as significant in changing the direction or nature of a relationship.

 

VI.  Second generation developmental theories have not been seriously criticized.

 

Five Minute Write

 

Spend five minutes writing about what you learned so far in class today.  You have to write constantly and cannot stop for five minutes.  If you cannot think of anything to write, write "I cannot think of anything" until something comes to mind.  Often, students will just write about the last idea discussed.  Write about the session from beginning to end.  You may want to revise and add your writing to your electronic course portfolio. 

 

"It is not a bad idea to get in the habit of writing down one's thoughts. It saves one having to bother anyone else with them."
Isabel Colegate

 

Review Chapter 9

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

axiom

A statement that is presumed to be true on its face and therefore does not require proof or explanation.

comparison level (CL)

In social exchange theory, a subjective standard of what we expect in a particular type of relationship such as friendship or romance.

comparison level of alternatives (CLalt)

In social exchange theory, a relative measure that evaluates how good a particular relationship is in comparison to real or perceived alternatives to that relationship.

cost

In social exchange theory, anything that has negative value to an individual.

developmental theory

The point of view that relationships evolve through stages defined by participants' expectations, perceptions, and meanings.

equity

In social exchange theory, the fairness of a relationship to individuals over time.

intercultural communication

The branch of communication field that studies communication among people from different cultures, including distinct cultures within a single country.

reward

In social exchange theory, anything that has positive value for an individual.

social exchange theory

The point of view that in relationships people try to minimize costs, maximize rewards, and ensure equity.

social penetration model

One of the first-generation theories of relational development; likens the development of personal relationships to peeling the layers of an onion to move progressively toward the center or core self.

trajectory

A personal understanding of various tracks in relationships. Trajectories define relational courses based on past experiences and observations.

turning point

A critical event, process, or feeling that individuals perceive as marking a new direction or intensity in a personal relationship.

uncertainty reduction theory

The point of view that uncertainty motivates communication and that certainty reduces the motivation to communicate.

 

Case 13 Thought and Reflection

  1. Why is privacy so important in marriage? What is the relationship between privacy and disclosure? What is the difference between remaining private and lying?

  2. Matt and Jennifer grew up with different privacy expectations. How are their expectations different, and how did this difference influence their new marriage?

  3. Jennifer and Matt talk about privacy rules. What are the rules according to Communication Boundary Theory of private disclosures? How are the rules changing for this couple?

  4. Why does Jennifer feel embarrassed? Would you? Why?

  5. Many newly married couples do not talk about the expectations they have for privacy and disclosure. Privacy rules are often assumptions people make without confirming another’s point of view. Beside the points raised in this case study, in what other way might Matt and Jennifer have privacy conflicts in the future?

  6.  

    Additional thoughts about Case 13?

    1. Why is privacy so important in marriage? What is the relationship between privacy and disclosure? What is the difference between remaining private and lying?

    2. Matt and Jennifer grew up with different privacy expectations. How are their expectations different, and how did this difference influence their new marriage?

    3. Jennifer and Matt talk about privacy rules. What are the rules according to Communication Boundary Theory of private disclosures? How are the rules changing for this couple?

    4. Why does Jennifer feel embarrassed? Would you? Why?

    5. Many newly married couples do not talk about the expectations they have for privacy and disclosure. Privacy rules are often assumptions people make without confirming another’s point of view. Beside the points raised in this case study, in what other way might Matt and Jennifer have privacy conflicts in the future?

     

Collaborative Teamwork for Portfolio!

As an active group member, complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility. 

 

Based on a case study, explain the following.

  1. Analyze stages/elements of communication concepts

  2. Identify motives of the communication

  3. Identify causes of the communication

  4. Identify effects of the communication.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

 

Week 10 Agenda

LEARNING OUTCOME: 

Create a model of relational development and dissolution.

Evaluate different communication strategies for relational maintenance and repair.

 

Bringing Theorists to the Table

Assignment:  Make a menu and place service for your assigned theorist.  Present the basic principles and beliefs of the theorist by speaking as if you are the theorist.  Roleplay.  Have you ever seen one of Oprah's book dinners?  In this case several theorists--those in your group--will come to the table with the rest of us.  You'll tell us about what you think, and we'll ask questions.  Each person in the group should have questions to ask other theorists in the group to keep the presentation lively.  Real food and drink is a good way to enhance the roleplaying.

An inspiration for the assignment.

http://www.sofaexpo.com/chicago/2005/img/special/release/12_Judy_Chicago_dinner_party_full3.jpg

Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party, 1976
Represented by John Natsoulas Gallery, Davis, CA

http://littleredmenace.com/weblog1/uploaded_images/JudyChicagoTheDinnerParty-708371.jpg

Source

  1. David Berlo: Model of communication

My place setting is for David K. Berlo.  He was my thesis advisor at Michigan State, and I think of his inspirational words often

 

My name is Dave Berlo.  I'm a professor of communication and writer.  My  place setting is simple and small because I want to conserve ideas by focusing on the essence of communication.  My model of communication is what made me famous, in my book the Process of Communication.  I like the color green because it represents recycling, and I recycled earlier ideas about models.  For dinner I'm eating and drinking golden beads, which represent the golden nuggets of my theories.

http://faculty.evansville.edu/dt4/301/awimage3.gifhttp://www.library.ilstu.edu/assets/img/presidents/berlo.jpgSource and Source

 

Sign up for the theorist you will be.  Visual aid needs to include place setting and menu.  Make sure you focus on how the ideas relate to interpersonal communication.

  1. Steve Duck:  Relationships http://family.jrank.org/pages/1354/Relationship-Dissolution-Duck-s-Model.html

  2. Julia T. Wood:  Textbook author. Intimate partner violence, gendered dynamics in culture.
    http://comm.unc.edu/facstaff/facultyprofile/wood/index_html

  3. B. F. Skinner:  Behaviorism http://www.bfskinner.org/BFSkinner/Home.html

  4. John Searle:  Speech acts http://www.csus.edu/indiv/n/nogalesp/Phil176SPG06/AustinSearle/SearleWhatIsASpeechActSummary.doc

  5. Victoria DeFrancisco: Conversations between spouses

  6. George Herbert Mead:  Symbolic activity http://www.bolenderinitiatives.com/sociology/george-herbert-mead-1863-1931

  7. Aaron Beck:  Couples, relationship level of communication http://hubpages.com/hub/Gender-Communication

  8. Herbert Blumer:  Individuals construct their actions http://www.jstor.org/pss/4121334

  9. Kenneth Burke:  Dramatism http://rhetorica.net/burke.htm

  10. B. Aubrey Fisher:  Narrative

  11. Erving Goffman:  Dramaturgical model (The World's a Stage) http://www.csulb.edu/~hmarlowe/SOC335/Goffman_Dramaturgical_Model.pdf

  12. Marshall McLuhan:  Technological determinism http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~kh380597/TD.htm - http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Theory/mcluhan/index.htm

  13. George Gerber:  Media cultivation theory http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/mass/cultivation.htm

  14. Sandra Harding:  Standpoint theory http://www.afirstlook.com/main.cfm/theory_resources/Standpoint_Theory

  15. James Honeycutt:  Relationship perception http://www.jstor.org/pss/352051

  16. Leslie A. Baxter:  Dialectical theory, Turning points in romantic relationships. http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/interpersonal/reldial.htm

  17. William Gudykunst:  Intercultural communication http://calstate.fullerton.edu/news/2005/116_gudykunst.html - http://spot.colorado.edu/~mody/docs/Handbookof%20InternationalCommFM.pdf

  18. Yun Kim:  Cultural adaptation http://www.ou.edu/deptcomm/facpages/kim.html

  19. William Rawlins:  Dialectical theory http://www.sagepub.com/authorDetails.nav?contribId=622061

  20. Albert Bandura:  Social learning theory http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html

  21.  Paul Watzlawick:  Interactional theory (Pragmatics of Communication) http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Theory/watzlawick/

  22. Ted Zorn:  Constructivism http://www.waikato.ac.nz/php/research.php?mode=show&author=74541

  23. Brant Burleson:  Comforting communication http://www.jstor.org/pss/1130086

  24. Jesse Delia:  Constructivism http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/interpersonal/construct.html

  25. Barnett Pearce or Vernon Cronen:  Hierarchy of meaninghttp://mattsmediaresearch.com/lecturenotes/CommTheoryCH7.ppt

  26. Ludwig von Bertalanffy:  General systems theory http://www.panarchy.org/vonbertalanffy/systems.1968.html

  27.  Mikhail Bakhtin:  Dialogue infuses human existence http://www.isfp.co.uk/russian_thinkers/mikhail_bakhtin.html - http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404100107.html

  28. Kathryn Dindia:  Dialectical theory http://www4.uwm.edu/letsci/communication/faculty/dindia.cfm

 

Week 12

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Describe how mass communication theories may explain interpersonal communication

Chapter 11 Lecture

 

Theories of Mass Communication Relevant to Interpersonal Communication

 

Photo Credit

 

How do media influence interpersonal communication?

 

Technological Determinism claims that some single cause determines other aspects of life (McLuhan). 

  • Expectation of immediate answer, resolution, information.

  • Less careful checking of details.

  • Hurried approach.

  • Multitasking.

  • Shortened attention span.

 

Cultivation Theory claims that technology--particularly television--has a cumulative effect in shaping  our view of reality.

  • Children's sex-role stereotypes seem directly related to the amount of commercial television they watch.

  • Television can make people think more alike.

  • Mean world syndrome:  The belief that the world is a dangerous place full of people who cannot be trusted and who are likely to harm us.

  • Media tend to support and normalize established cultural practices and values.

FRIENDS Ross's Teeth - Friends - scenes with the cheesecake

 

Do media affect our relationships?

 

Do you sit and watch television or play on the Internet instead of talk?

Do you become bored with people?

Do you expect problems to be resolved quickly?

Do dialectical tensions seem bad?  Does conflict seem bad?

Do we think rudeness is appropriate because of what we see on television?

 

Case Studies About Relationships (from the Internet)

 

Knowledge Checklist

Consider this list of concepts.  Imagine that you have a test where you have to write a paragraph about

a possible interpersonal communication influence of each of these mass communication concepts.

 

How many do you know?

  1. cool media

  2. cultivation

  3. cultivation theory

  4. cultural mainstream

  5. determinism

  6. electronic epoch

  7. hot media

  8. literate epoch

  9. mainstreaming

  10. mean world syndrome

  11. multitasking

  12. print epoch

  13. resonance

  14. technological determinism

  15. tribal epoch

 

 

Debate! 

 

Television and films have a strong influence on interpersonal communication.  Televisions and films give people ideas about what to say and how to act in relationships.

 

versus

 

Television and films have no influence on interpersonal communication.  People behave as they were taught by family and friends who model interpersonal relationships.  
 

 

Review Chapter 11

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

cool media

McLuhan's term for media that include incomplete sensory data and thus require human involvement and participation.

cultivation

In cultivation theory, the cumulative process by which television fosters beliefs about social reality, including the belief that the world is more dangerous and violent than it actually is.

cultivation theory

The point of view that television promotes a view of social reality that may be inaccurate but that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life.

cultural mainstream

In cultivation theory, the general view of social life that television constructs.

determinism

The belief that human behavior is governed by forces beyond individual control, usually biology, environment, or a combination of the two.

electronic epoch

The fourth era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, ushered in by the invention of the telegraph, which made it possible for people to communicate personally across distance.

hot media

McLuhan's term for media that include relatively complete sensory data and hence do not require significant human participation.

literate epoch

The second era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, inaugurated by invention of the phonetic alphabet and during which common symbols allowed people to communicate in writing.

mainstreaming

In cultivation theory, the effect of television in stabilizing and homogenizing views within a society; one of two processes used to explain television's cultivation of synthetic world views.

mass communication

Collective term for forms of communication aimed at large audiences.

mean world syndrome

In cultivation theory, the belief that the world is a dangerous place full of selfish, mean people who cannot be trusted and who are likely to harm others. Cultivation theorists assert that the mean world syndrome is fostered by heavy viewing of television.

multitasking

Engaging in two or more activities at once or in interacting, overlapping ways.

print epoch

The third era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, in which invention of the printing press made it possible to mass-produce written materials so that reading was no longer restricted to elite members of society.

resonance

In cultivation theory, the extent to which something (specifically, phenomena on television) is congruent with personal experience; one of two mechanisms used to explain television's ability to cultivate synthetic world views.

technological determinism

The point of view that media decisively influence how individuals think, feel, and act, as well as how they view collective life.

tribal epoch

The first era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, during which the oral tradition reigned and face- to-face talking and listening were primary forms of communication.

 

Week 11

Mar. 31-Apr 2

Read Case 15 and use collaborative teamwork to answer for your electronic portfolio.

 

 

Case 15 Thought and Reflection

  1. A theoretical perspective we've discussed is relational dialectics suggests that people have to manage opposing tensions or pulls in opposite directions in their relationships. What dialectical tensions or pulls do Ray and Shawna have to manage in their relationship with each other? In their relationships with their children? In other relationships?

  2. Communication researchers argue that self-disclosure—revealing to others information about yourself that they would not otherwise know—is essential in developing close relationships. How does Shawna feel about the level of self-disclosure in her marriage at this time? When do Shawna and Ray self-disclose to each other? Does it always have a positive effect on their feelings for each other?

  1. Compliance-gaining, or persuasion, occurs whenever we try to convince someone to believe as we do or do as we would like. Who engages in compliance-gaining in this case study? In how many different contexts does compliance-gaining occur? How frequently do the various characters engage in compliance-gaining?

  2. The study of relational maintenance focuses on the communication and behaviors people use to stay together. What do Shawna and Ray do in order to remain close as a couple? What external factors are in place that help keep them together as a couple?

  3. As Ray suggests, conflict is inevitable. What do Ray and Shawna have conflict over? What negative communication behaviors do they engage in? What positive behaviors do they use? Why do you think it took Ray longer to recover from their argument?

  4. Do mediated communications have a dialectical push-pull.

Week 12

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Describe how mass communication theories may explain interpersonal communication

Read chapter 11

 

Chapter 11 quiz and one Try It Out assignment.  Add quiz results and the Try-It-Out to portfolio.

Read Case 14 and discuss .

 

Chapter 11 Lecture

 

Theories of Mass Communication Relevant to Interpersonal Communication

 

Photo Credit

 

How do media influence interpersonal communication?

 

Technological Determinism claims that some single cause determines other aspects of life (McLuhan). 

  • Expectation of immediate answer, resolution, information.

  • Less careful checking of details.

  • Hurried approach.

  • Multitasking.

  • Shortened attention span.

 

Cultivation Theory claims that technology--particularly television--has a cumulative effect in shaping  our view of reality.

  • Children's sex-role stereotypes seem directly related to the amount of commercial television they watch.

  • Television can make people think more alike.

  • Mean world syndrome:  The belief that the world is a dangerous place full of people who cannot be trusted and who are likely to harm us.

  • Media tend to support and normalize established cultural practices and values.

FRIENDS Ross's Teeth - Friends - scenes with the cheesecake

 

Do media affect our relationships?

 

Do you sit and watch television or play on the Internet instead of talk?

Do you become bored with people?

Do you expect problems to be resolved quickly?

Do dialectical tensions seem bad?  Does conflict seem bad?

Do we think rudeness is appropriate because of what we see on television?

 

Case Studies About Relationships (from the Internet)

 

Knowledge Checklist

Consider this list of concepts.  Imagine that you have a test where you have to write a paragraph about

a possible interpersonal communication influence of each of these mass communication concepts.

 

How many do you know?

  1. cool media

  2. cultivation

  3. cultivation theory

  4. cultural mainstream

  5. determinism

  6. electronic epoch

  7. hot media

  8. literate epoch

  9. mainstreaming

  10. mean world syndrome

  11. multitasking

  12. print epoch

  13. resonance

  14. technological determinism

  15. tribal epoch

 

 

Debate! 

 

Television and films have a strong influence on interpersonal communication.  Televisions and films give people ideas about what to say and how to act in relationships.

 

versus

 

Television and films have no influence on interpersonal communication.  People behave as they were taught by family and friends who model interpersonal relationships.  
 

 

Review Chapter 11

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

cool media

McLuhan's term for media that include incomplete sensory data and thus require human involvement and participation.

cultivation

In cultivation theory, the cumulative process by which television fosters beliefs about social reality, including the belief that the world is more dangerous and violent than it actually is.

cultivation theory

The point of view that television promotes a view of social reality that may be inaccurate but that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life.

cultural mainstream

In cultivation theory, the general view of social life that television constructs.

determinism

The belief that human behavior is governed by forces beyond individual control, usually biology, environment, or a combination of the two.

electronic epoch

The fourth era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, ushered in by the invention of the telegraph, which made it possible for people to communicate personally across distance.

hot media

McLuhan's term for media that include relatively complete sensory data and hence do not require significant human participation.

literate epoch

The second era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, inaugurated by invention of the phonetic alphabet and during which common symbols allowed people to communicate in writing.

mainstreaming

In cultivation theory, the effect of television in stabilizing and homogenizing views within a society; one of two processes used to explain television's cultivation of synthetic world views.

mass communication

Collective term for forms of communication aimed at large audiences.

mean world syndrome

In cultivation theory, the belief that the world is a dangerous place full of selfish, mean people who cannot be trusted and who are likely to harm others. Cultivation theorists assert that the mean world syndrome is fostered by heavy viewing of television.

multitasking

Engaging in two or more activities at once or in interacting, overlapping ways.

print epoch

The third era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, in which invention of the printing press made it possible to mass-produce written materials so that reading was no longer restricted to elite members of society.

resonance

In cultivation theory, the extent to which something (specifically, phenomena on television) is congruent with personal experience; one of two mechanisms used to explain television's ability to cultivate synthetic world views.

technological determinism

The point of view that media decisively influence how individuals think, feel, and act, as well as how they view collective life.

tribal epoch

The first era in McLuhan's media history of civilization, during which the oral tradition reigned and face- to-face talking and listening were primary forms of communication.

 

 

Week 11

 

 

Chapter 10 Lecture

 

Theories about Culture and Communication Communities


Photo credit. 

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES FROM CHAPTER 10

 

V.  Developmental theories focus on how relationships develop, grow, and decline over time.

  A.  First generation developmental theories had serious limitations.

     1.  They were excessively and inappropriately linear.

     2.  They implied an inevitability to relational development.

     3.  They did not include, nor apply to, a number of intimate relationships, such as gay and lesbian commitments.

     4.  They focused on external, observable phenomena to define stages in relational life.

  B.  Second generation developmental models are more sophisticated and useful.  James Honeycutt emphasized that relationships develop not because of events themselves, but because of how we interpret events.

  C.  Individual have "imagined trajectories," which are their understandings and expectations of the typical paths relationships follow.

     1.  They are a type of knowledge schemata that guides how we think about what is happening between us and others.

     2.  Relationships may also have turning points, which exist when we interpret certain relational events or moments as significant in changing the direction or nature of a relationship.

 

VI.  Second generation developmental theories have not been seriously criticized.

 

The outsider within is a person who is inside a particular social group through daily interactions and activities but is also excluded from that group because the person is not "one of them."
I.  A number of theories focus on relationships between communication and culture.

  A.  Communication reflects cultural values and perspectives.

     1.  The language of different cultures reflects different view of identity.  Western cultures tend to emphasize individual, whereas many Eastern cultures place greater emphasis on family and community. 

     2.  In the process of learning language, we learn our culture's values.

  B.  Language reflects cultural views of identity.

     1.  Cultures vary in the extent to which they define this in terms of individual or collective/communal criteria.

     2.  Cultures vary in the extent to which they assume this is rooted in family ties.

 

II.  Standpoint theory entails three central ideas and a premise about the relationship between standpoint and communication.

  A.  Cultures are organized hierarchically so that different groups experience dissimilar power, opportunities, and perspectives.

  • Standpoint theory traces how distinct social groups within a society shape members' experiences, knowledge, and ways of interacting.

  • Speech community theory offers a more specific analysis of how interaction with particular social groups shapes styles of communication that differ for women, men, and members of different ethnicities.

  • Organizational culture theory illuminates the role of communication increasing and sustaining distinct cultures in organizational life.

  1. Societies define distinct groups not only as different but as differentially worthy, valuable, or capable.

  2. Standpoint arises out of the material, social, and symbolic conditions that shape a group's experiences.

  3. Standpoint is not a birthright.

  4. Standpoint is an achievement--something that is accomplished only if someone who is born into a group engages in political struggle to understand and critically question the conditions that shape the group's life.

 

What do you think?  

 

According to standpoint theory, different social standpoints produce different knowledge.

Photo Credit

 

Critical race theory examines how laws and legal institutions have constructed race.

 

     1.  Georg William Fredrick Hegel discussed the master-slave relationship and noted that the master and slave experience the "same relationship" in distinct ways because of their standpoints.

     2.  Because members of every social group experience culture from the perspective of their groups, all perspectives are partial.

 

What does this statement mean to you? 

 

Our social groups powerfully shape how we communicate with ourselves, others, and the world; those in less powerful positions have more comprehensive views of social life.

Photo credit.

 

 

Apply Research Findings

 

Tentative styles of speaking are more typical of girls and women than boys and men.

 

Can you think of an example?

 

Agree or Disagree? 

 

According to Wood, whiteness is assumed and unquestioned in the United States.
 

"White is to be "without race" because the culture defines whiteness as the norm" (p. 214)

Photo Credit

 

Situated knowledges

  • Knowledge is situated in social circumstances. 

  • Refers to the overall ways of perceiving, experiencing, and knowing that are shaped by our social locations.

  • Some standpoints are more complete and thus more accurate than others.

Power

  • Subjugated groups have no personal investment in maintaining, much less justifying, the status quo.

  • Subordinate positions of power, their comfort and well-being and perhaps their survival depend on understanding the views, values, and even the moods of their masters.

  • Muted group theory explores how dominant groups control language and meanings and silence others.

  • Dominant groups want to preserve a system of power relations that benefits them.

  • The richest way of knowing is as an outsider within.

Groups of LESSER power in a society have a MORE comprehensive, more accurate knowledge of social life than groups of a higher social position.

 

Communication

  • We develop standpoints by communicating with others in our groups and by participating in society as a whole.

  • Social location is a primary influence on the experiences, opportunities, and understandings of group members.

 

Two reservations about standpoint theory have been voiced.

  A.  The theory inappropriately privileges marginalized standpoints.

  B.  Standpoint theory obscures human diversity.

 

SPEECH COMMUNITIES

 

 

Four Tenors, Cut 14

Sarah Brightman & José Carreras - Amigos para siempre

(Friends for life)

Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber.
Lyrics: Don Black.
Official theme song for the Barcelona Games, 1992.
This song was commissioned as the theme tune to the Olympic Games held in Barcelona in 1992 and performed live by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras at the closing ceremony, which was watched by a TV audience of 1.2 billion.

Sarah

I don't have to say
A word to you
You seem to know
Whatever mood
I'm going through
Feels as though
I've known you forever
 

José

You
Can look into my eyes and see
The way I feel
And how
The world is treating me
Maybe I have known you forever
 

both

Amigos para siempre
Means you'll always be my friend
Amics per sempre
Means a love that cannot end
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

I feel you near me
Even when we are apart
Just knowing you are in this world
Can warm my heart
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

Sarah

We share memories
I won't forget
And we'll share more,
My friend,
We haven't started yet
Something happens
When we're together
 

José

When
I look at you
I wonder why
There has to come
A time when we must say goodbye
I'm alive when we are together
 

both

Amigos para siempre
Means you'll always be my friend
Amics per sempre
Means a love that cannot end
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

I feel you near me
Even when we are apart
Just knowing you are in this world
Can warm my heart
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

José

When
I look at you
I wonder why
There has to come
A time when we must say goodbye
 

both

I'm alive when we are together
 

Amigos para siempre
Means you'll always be my friend
Amics per sempre
Means a love that cannot end
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

I feel you near me
Even when we are apart
Just knowing you are in this world
Can warm my heart
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
 

Amigos para siempre
Means you'll always be my friend
Amics per sempre
Means a love that cannot end
Friends for life
Not just a summer or a spring
Amigos para siempre
Amigos para siempre
 

 

Change Your Perception

 

What are examples of speech communities?

Photo Credit

 

SPEECH COMMUNITIES

 

Different social groups teach members distinct styles of communicating and interpreting the communication of others.

 

Langer discussed discourse communities--language is the key to shared cultural life.  Collective life is possible only when a group of people shares a symbol system and the meanings associated with it.

 

Speech community: 

  • A group of people who share not only a common language but also understandings of rules and norms that guide how members of the group practice and interpret speech activities.

  • Exists when a group of people understands goals and styles of communication in ways not shared by people outside of the group.

 

Masculine communities emphasize instrumental communication that . . .

Feminine speech communities emphasize relational communication that involves . . .

 

Coffee and Conversation

 

In pairs, discuss an example, anecdote, story, or case study.   Discuss what you know and what you think with another person in the class. 

 

"Saying what we think gives us a wider conversational range than saying what we know."
Cullen Hightower

 

Question!?!?

 

What are examples of vocabulary on at Park University?

Photo credit.

 

 

Tell a Story about Park University.

 

"Frank (1995) notes that the core morality of personal narratives is a dual responsibility to self and others. . . when the teller of a story and the listener accept this responsibility, each has the potential to enter the other's life and to be changed by the entry" (p. 129).

 

Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.


"Most of the major advances in social life have come about because people told new stories that contested popular views and established ideas about life" (Wood, p. 113).

 

  

Write!

Purpose:  To develop awareness of how your standpoint affects how you communication and how you interpret the communication of others.

 

Write the answers to the questions.

1.  What is your race/ethnicity?  2.  What is your sex?  3.  What is your sexual orientation?  4.  What is your socio-economic class?  What is (are) your ethnic identifications)?  6.  Describe any disabilities that you have.  7.  What are your spiritual beliefs (these may or may not be part of a formal religion)?  8.  What is your age?  9.  Are you currently involved in a serious romantic relationship?  10.  Identify other facets of your identity that you consider important influences on who you are.
REFLECTION
Look over your answers.  1.  What do they tell you about who you are?  2.  Compare your communication style and goals with the communication styles and goals of others in your class who answered the questions in different ways.  3.  Can you identify connections between aspects of personal identity and communication behaviors?

 

"The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth."
Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)

 

 

Review Chapter 10

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

collegial story

An account about one member of an organization told by a different member of the organization.

communication rules

Regular patterns in the use and interpretation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors and their functions within a particular group.

corporate story

A narrative that serves to convey the values, style, and history of an organization. Told to newcomers, stories perform socialization; told among veteran members of an organization, stories serve to bind members together and vitalize the organization's ideology.

critical race theory

A theory that examines how laws and legal institutions construct race and uses race as a critical perspective for questioning cultural views of justice and fairness.

organizational culture

Understandings about identity and codes of thought and action that are shared by members of an organization.

organizational culture theory

A point of view that focuses on the ways in which communication creates and sustains distinct customs, understandings, and perspectives within particular organizations.

outsider within

A person who is both inside a particular social group through regular interactions with members of the group and outside of the group because he or she is defined as not "one of them."

personal story

An account that announces how people see themselves and how they wish to be seen by others in an organization.

rite

A dramatic, planned set of activities that brings together aspects of cultural ideology into a single event.

ritual

Communicative performance that is regularly repeated in an organization and that members of an organization come to regard as familiar and routine.

situated knowledges

In standpoint theory, the idea that any individual's knowledge is situated within her or his particular circumstances and that there are thus multiple knowledges, not a singular one.

speech community

A group of people who share understandings of communication that are not shared by people outside of the group.

speech community theory

The point of view that explains the communication styles of particular social groups with reference to the cultures in which members of the groups are socialized.

standpoint

The viewpoint and knowledge that grow out of political awareness of and struggle with material, symbolic, and social circumstances that shape the lives of a particular group.

standpoint theory

The view that the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what members of that group experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.

thick description

An ethnographic method that describes cultural practices from the point of view of people who are members of the particular culture or social community being studied.

vocabulary

Language used by members of a culture, social group, or institution. The languages of particular groups reflect their experiences, values, norms, and ideology.

white studies

An emerging discipline that focuses critical attention on what whiteness means (and has meant) and how whiteness is and has been constructed as "normal" in Western cultures.

 

Case 14 Thought and Reflection

  1. How do Anya and Robert cope with the feeling that their relationship overlaps different categories of friends and dating or romantic partners? What role does this ambiguity play? How might relationship labels help or hinder the relationship in this case?

  1. Where do you think labels for relationships come from? What functions do you think they serve in everyday relationships?

  2. Make a list of the tensions, or relational dialectics, Robert and Anya face in their relationship. How might the tensions be related to one another? Do you think it is possible to feel—as Robert and Anya do— both certainty and uncertainty at the same time? Reflect on this theme of "both/and," and think about the extent to which it is present in your own romantic relationships with same-sex or cross-sex partners.

  3. How do Robert and Anya deal with the tensions? I-low are their responses like or unlike those you might have experienced in your own relationships?

  4. How do you think the fact that Robert and Anya talk about their relationship helps manage the tensions that keep it as one or another sort of relationship?

  5. When Anya tells Robert "But I do love you" and Robert responds "I love you too," what type of love are they talking about? What is the boundary between "love like a friend" and "love like a lover" that is being negotiated through their talk?

Collaborative Teamwork for Portfolio!

As an active group member, complete this learning activity collaborating with other students in the class.  Each student needs to be actively engaged and carry his or her share of the work responsibility. 

 

Use a case study to complete the following analysis.

  1. Demonstrates analysis of personal strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Offers goal that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and tangible.

REQUIRED FOR THE PORTFOLIO!  One person needs to record the group's decision on paper during class, then typing and sending electronically to ALL team members and the professor BEFORE the next class meeting.  The team members will then be able to include the work in their electronic course portfolios. The recorder CANNOT be the same person who was the recorder during the last group activity.  A recorder who fails to email the assignment to group members before the next class meeting should expect to receive a zero participation grade.

Responsibilities in a Small Group*

  1. Be committed to the group’s goals

  2. Fulfill individual assignments

  3. Avoid interpersonal conflicts

  4. Encourage full participation

  5. Keep the discussion on track

*Lucas, S. E.  (2004).  The art of public speaking.  (8th ed.)  Boston, MA:  McGraw-Hill.


"No one wants advice, only collaboration."
John Steinbeck (1902 - 1968)

 


Photo credit.

 

Week 13

LEARNING OUTCOME:  Describe how critical communication theories may explain interpersonal communication

Chapter 12 Lecture

Critical Communication Theories and How They Related to Interpersonal Communication


Photo credit.

 

 

 

Scholars are divided on the question of whether it is appropriate for theories to have strong and explicit motives of social reform.

 

Feminism:  Men and women who recognize the equal value of all human beings and seek to diminish discrimination and oppression based on sex.

 

Feminism is concerned with gender and gender inequities.

 

Gender is a socially constructed--human created--system of values, identities, and activities that are prescribed for women and men.

 

Patriarchy is concerned with values, institutions, and practices that reflect the experiences, values, and interests of men as a group and protect their privileges while simultaneously denying, dismissing, and/or devaluing the experiences, values, and interests of women as a group.

UNIVERSE OF DISCOURSE

 

The universe of discourse that prevails at any moment in the life of a culture shapes the understandings of all who participate in the universe of discourse.

 

Most feminist theorists believe there are multiple ways of perceiving the world and that no one way is absolutely true or best. 

 

Remember standpoint theory's emphasis on situated knowledges.

 

MUTED GROUP THEORY

Muted group theory:

  • A focus on how language names experiences and therefore determines what is socially recognized.

  • Close attention to the way that a dominant discourse silences, or mutes, groups that are not in a society's mainstream.

Ardener and Ardener first suggested that women's experiences have been muted by masculine bias.

 

How does this affect interpersonal communication?

 

The power to name experiences is equal to the power to construct reality.

NAMING = REALITY

 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Create a button that has a saying, which represents a key interpersonal communication concept. 

 

You can use a concept that reflects a theory from this chapter, such as Muted Voices, Feminism, or some other idea.

usm.maine.edu/

 

Agree or Disagree?

 

Language choices create gender and power differences between people.
 

 

Photo credit.

 

IDEOLOGICAL DETERMINISM

Ideology is a code of meanings that shape how a group of people sees and acts in the world.

 

 

Debate! 

 

True or False?

 

The crux of 90% of interpersonal communication problems is about power related to gender or oppression.

 

Collaborative Teamwork!

Identify one idea, experience, or feeling for which there is no name.  How does not having a socially shared way to describe and discuss the phenomenon affect you?  Now, try to come up with another. . . and another. . . .

 

 

 

Mini Speech

Prepare an oral presentation on the following topic. 
You have heard a song that represents an alternative to conventional musical traditions in the United States.  You might select gangsta rap, Riot Grrls, or another example outside of the mainstream.  Discuss the selection, paying attention not only to verbal lyrics, but also to the best, the sounds, and other features of the music.  Describe how the music challenges the dominant ideology.  Discuss the possible effect of the music on interpersonal communication.

One or more students may be selected to present OR one student from each group may be asked to present.  If we run out of time before everyone can present orally, there will be opportunities to do other mini-speeches later in the term.

 

 

 

Change Your Perception

 

  1. Creating and using a masculine language system diminishes feminine perspectives and experiences.

  2. Men's language and experiences tend to dominate the public sphere and women tend to dominate the private sphere.

  3. People with the power to name and thus construct reality highlight what they see as important and erase the experiences of those without the power to name.

  4. To create a more equitable society, we need to revise the language to reflect the experiences, interests, knowledge, values, and perspectives of women.

 

 

What are your views of women and men--what they should be like and do, what is unfeminine and unmasculine. 

 

INTERVIEW three people in the class and ask them to describe their views.

 

 

 

Review Chapter 12

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

critical theories

A group of theories that seek to produce change in oppressive or otherwise undesirable practices and structures in society.

cultural studies theories

A group of related theories that seek to unmask and challenge the techniques by which privileged groups maintain their privilege and power in society.

culture

Both the ideology of a society and the actual, concrete practices that occur in that society.

feminist theories

A group of theories related by their focus on gender and its derivative, power.

gender

A socially created system of values, identities, and behaviors that are prescribed for women and men. Unlike sex, which is biologically determined, gender is socially constructed.

ideological domination

In cultural studies, the set of meanings, values, and concrete practices that has the greatest power and the adherence of the greatest number of people at a given moment in the life of a culture.

ideology

The ideas, values, beliefs, and understandings that are common to members of a social group and that guide the practices and customs of the society.

inclusion stage

The first stage in feminist theorizing; the work of this stage is to raise consciousness of gendered inequities.

masculine bias

Giving primary or exclusive attention to men's behaviors, beliefs, and contexts and using these phenomena to describe and explain social life. Bias exists because roughly half of the social world (that is, women) is not studied and is therefore not represented in theories that are developed.

muted group theory

A feminist theory that claims that women (and other groups) have been silenced because (white, heterosexual, middle-class) men have had the power to name the world and thus to constitute experience and meaning.

overdetermination

The idea that aspects of social life, including ideological domination, are determined by multiple, often overlapping and interacting causes rather than by any single cause.

patriarchy

Literally, "rule by the fathers"; in feminist theory, the cultural values, institutions, and practices that reflect and normalize the experiences of men as a group while denying, dismissing, and/or devaluing the experiences, values, and interests of women as a group. Patriarchy does not refer to individual men but to a cultural system established by and reflective of men as a group.

revisionist stage

The second stage in feminist theorizing, during which the goal is to re-vision (or revise) cultural practices, structures, and modes of interpreting experiences in ways that do not marginalize women and their activities.

sex

The biological and genetic quality of maleness or femaleness; not the same as gender.

standpoint theory

The view that the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what members of that group experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.

superstructure

In Marxist theory, the social institutions and practices that assist in reproducing and normalizing the underlying economic system of a society.

symbolic interactionism/symbolic interaction theory

The point of view that claims society predates individuals, who acquire minds and selves in the process of interacting symbolically with other members of a culture. Symbols are also necessary to the functioning and continuation of collective life.

theatre of struggle

A term used by cultural studies theorists to describe the ongoing battle for ideological control of cultures.

theory

An account of what something is, how it works, what it produces or causes to happen, and what can change how it operates. Theories are points of view, human constructions.

Case 17 Thought and Reflection

 

Stevie (woman) and Glen (man) married 6 weeks ago.  Each were married before.  Stevie is upset because she feels ignored by Glen.  He says:  "I feel like you always have the right words to say when I don't, or that you seem to have some kind of radar that zeroes in on any little tension in the relationship.  Maybe I resent that."  They decide the problem is each person has a unique idea about what marriage means.

  1. While Glen’s idea of marriage made him want to flee, Stevie’s idea made her believe that all men wanted to escape. As a result, their behaviors did not correspond to their feelings about each other, but instead reflected their unspoken fears and beliefs about being married. How might various contextual factors (culture, ethnicity, religion, income, social network, family, children, etc.) modify this story?

  1. Is talking about the relationship only valuable when it is intended to solve a problem? What about when things are going well? When might it be detrimental to talk about the relationship?

  2. What is the difference between saying I love you and saying I love the relationship? What implications does this distinction have for the consequences of talking about the relationship? How might this distinction become important in various problem-solving or conflict situations?

  3. Are there gender differences in how much people engage in and value talking about the relationship? Why, or why not?

  4. What role does thinking about the relationship have on the relationship? What would it be like if Glen and Stevie had all of these thoughts and never expressed them?

  5. How can Glen and Stevie be this calm? Are they for real? Do people really talk this way about relationships? Or does this seem to be an intellectual exercise that happens only in textbooks?

  6. How would the value and function of thinking and talking about relationships differ in other types of relationships (e.g., parent-child, sibling, friends, same-sex couples, co-workers)?

What is your ethical position regarding the interpersonal communication situations in the case studies?

 

 

Week 14

Read chapter 13  Read Case 18

1.  Anticipatory Set

Examine these photos.

The modern period began near the end of the 19th century and ended around the start of World War I. 

The postmodern period is sometimes considered after World War II.

The study of interpersonal communication became established in the 1960s, which was also a time of social unrest.

Women's Rights

http://www.wcl.american.edu/history/images/picketline.jpg

1917 Women's Vote Source

http://blogwaybaby.com/NOW%20March.jpg

1960s Source

 

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v280/tomasutpen/album6/anthonystatue1970.jpg

Source

 

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ZbDKf8rNxQU/RhoK4bm3_DI/AAAAAAAAAFc/IroDPdE-5B0/s400/Women%E2%80%99s+March+at+Garden+State+Plaza,+Paramus,+NJ+1970.jpg

Source

 

Women's Rights Now

 

http://media.nowpublic.net/images//ba/2/ba21932e6938abc284572d07200d9dae.jpg

Source

 

Peace Demonstrations in the 1960s

 

Anti-Vietnam War Protesters Holding a Sign, Anti-Vietnam War protesters in Washington DC hold a sign that reads 'Peace' during a demonstration for the students killed at Kent State., © Leif Skoogfors/CORBIS, RM, Activist, Anti-war movement, Asian historical event, Battle, Historic event, Mid-Atlantic, North America, North American historical event, Peace, Peace activist, People, Political and social issues, Protest, Public demonstration, Reformers, Social reformers, United States historical event, USA, Vietnam War, 1959-1975, Vietnamese historical event, War, Washington, DC

Source

Source

 

Peace Now

 

 

Source

http://www.4strugglemag.org/images/anti%20war.jpg

Source

http://madmikey.mu.nu/archives/Victory%20Vigil.jpg

Source

 

Civil Rights in the 1960s

History

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sourc

http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/civil_rights_march_cut.jpg

Source

Civil Rights Now

http://malakoffnews.net/clients/malakoffnews/1-22-2009-3-36-48-PM-8209740.jpg

Source

http://blog.syracuse.com/news/2009/01/large_010409Vigil1mjg.JPG

Source

 

http://assets0.theeyeopener.com/articles/photos/medium/depression.jpg

Then--Great Depression Source

http://www.wildernesscommittee.org/old/campaigns/rainforest/island/vancouver_island/reports/Vol24No05/jobs/images/03_save_our_jobs.gif

Now--Source

 

http://www.internationalist.org/laimmigrantdemo060325.jpg

Source

 

2.  Objective

To communicate a theme that challenges the notion that a particular social order is natural and right.

 

3.  Input

Chapter 13

 

The Effects of Postmodern Theorizing on Interpersonal Communication

 

D. Soyini Madison

Is It a Human Being or a Girl?


Photo credit. 

 

I.  The modern period began near the end of the 19th century and ended around the start of World War I. Postmodern theories began after after World War I.

 

II.  Postmodern theories are a significant influence on current interpersonal communication research and theorizing. 

  • Postmodernism is an intellectual and political movement that does its work through critical analysis, and challenged the notion that a particular social order is natural and right.

  • Your project uses critical analysis of media text as it relates to interpersonal communication.

  • Uncertainty theory and exchange theory are consistent with modernist worldviews because both claim there are predictable, durable patterns in how relationships develop.

  • Postmodernism marks the fall of grand narratives.  Grand narratives are coherent stories that cultures tell about themselves, their practices, and their values.

  • Postmodern theories emphasize localized action and disparage terms such as "culture" and "society," which suggest a homogenous social order.

  • Postmodernists claim each person is fragmented and continuously changing.

  • Postmodern theories regard language as perhaps the most important means for constituting subjects and the social order.

 

Cartoon credit

 

Picture credit

  • Within postmodern thinking, meaning is considered highly precarious.

Cartoon credit

III.  Postmodern theories have been criticized.

 

4. Model

Nam Paik challenged the notion that a our use of media is natural and right.

 

5.  Checking for understanding

 

In comparison to past theorizing in communication, modern theorizing is characterized by

 

a.

greater critical emphasis

 

b.

increased reliance on interpretive research

 

c.

a search for universal laws of communication

 

d.

greater critical emphasis and increased reliance on interpretive research

 

e.

increased reliance on interpretive research and a search for universal laws of communication

 

2.

Modernist thinking was characterized by

 

a.

belief in stability

 

b.

belief in singular truth

 

c.

belief in the coherence of social life

 

d.

belief in stability and belief in the coherence of social life

 

e.

belief in stability, belief in singular truth, and belief in the coherence of social life

 

3.

Postmodern theorists don't use words such as "culture" and "society" because

 

a.

they regard the terms as undertheorized

 

b.

they view the terms as myths about a homogeneous social order that doesn't really exist

 

c.

their focus (theoretical scope) is individuals

 

d.

the terms suggest a fixed, static quality

 

e.

they regard the terms as undertheorized and the terms suggest a fixed, static quality

 

4.

Within postmodern/poststructural theory, a human is

a.

a fixed essence

b.

a way of being

c.

a stable identity enacted in social situations

d.

the ability to see one's self from the perspective of others

e.

a stable identity enacted in social situations and the ability to see one's self from the perspective of others

 

5.

Postmodern scholars regard social life as

a.

coherent and relatively stable

b.

fragmented and stable

c.

fragmented and fluid

d.

coherent and fluid

e.

relational and constant

 

6.

Postmodern theories claim there is no stable, enduring core self.

True
False
 

 

7.

Superior narratives are stories cultures tell about themselves, their practices and their values.

True
False
Narrative knowledge is knowledge in the form of story-telling.

 

8.

Postmodernism is interested in action at a local level.

True
False
 

 

9.

Fragmentation within society has led to commodification.

True
False
 

commodification

In postmodernist theory, the process by which phenomena, including people, are treated as products to be acquired and used.

 

10.

Derrida was interested in discursive structures.

True
False
 

 

Derrida was concerned about words:  sous rature  means literally, "under erasure."  Term coined by Jacques Derrida, a postmodernist, to call attention to the necessity of words to refer to phenomena and simultaneously the inability of words to fully represent them.

 

 

6. Guided practice

What is a statement that challenges the notion challenges the notion that a particular social order is natural and right?

7. Independent Practice

Write a statement about INTERPERSONAL communication that challenges the notion that a particular social order is natural and right.

Possible topics:  marriage, communication, work, trust, family

8.  Closure

 

We've discussed the post modern communication theories about narratives and language.  These theorists suggest that communication should be a force for changing the social order.

 

Be sure to read case 18 for discussion in the next class meeting.

 

9.  Additional Learning

 

INDIVIDUAL Write!

 

Write individually.  If there is time, share your information with others in the class. 

 

Describe the person that you are in five distinct relationships (a.  Romantic Relationship, b. Recent Supervisor, c.  Friendship, d. Parent or Guardian, e. Professor or Academic Advisor.  When you are done, compare the descriptions and ask yourself:  1.  Which of these is the real me?  2.  Are any of these false "me"s?  3.  Is there an enduring core that is consistent across my self in the five relationships?

FOR EACH OF THE 5 RELATIONSHIPS, indicate whether the statement is very true, somewhat true, not usually true, sometimes true, seldom true.

1.  I am very talkative.

2.  I joke a lot.

3.  I express a lot of authority.

4.  I talk about my feelings.

5.  I feel free to challenge the other person.

6.  I disclose personal information.

7.  I feel relaxed and at ease.

8.  I work to make the other person like me.

9.  I am dependent on the other person.

10.  I am completely honest and forthcoming with the other person.

 

 

VIDEO CLIP PROMPTS

Below are YouTube clips designed to prompt discussion on an array of topics relevant to improving interpersonal communication.

 

Attachment

 

Jelly is Jelly

 

I have one minute to make them like me!

 

Review Chapter 13

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

commodification

In postmodernist theory, the process by which phenomena, including people, are treated as products to be acquired and used.

discursive structures

Michel Foucault's term for deeply ensconced ways of thinking about and expressing identity and conducting social life. Gender, race-ethnicity, and socioeconomic class are examples of discursive structures that reflect and embody cultural ideologies.

grand narrative

A coherent story that a culture tells about itself, its practices, and its values.

meaning

The significance conferred on experiences and phenomena; meaning is constructed, not intrinsic to communication. In general systems theory, communication has two levels of meaning: the content level, which concerns the information in a message; and the relationship level, which concerns what the message implies about the power, liking, and responsiveness between the communicators.

micropolitics

Resistance to existing structures and practices of power at local, sometimes personal levels. This decentered type of resistance to existing power structures is associated with postmodernist assumption that power itself is often not located in one central place but diffused throughout society.

modernity

Roughly from the end of the 19th century to the start of World War I; the period in which society was believed to be coherent and absolute truth was thought to be knowable through the methods of science.  Order was highly valued," high" and "low" culture were distinguished in nature and value, and individuals were assumed to be rational, autonomous, and stable.

nihilism

The denial of any absolute basis for making meaningful distinctions among values, moral codes, social practices, and forms of social organization.

postmodern

The post-World War II era of social life that emerged after modernism. Postmodern society is described as fragmented, uncertain, and continuously in flux; the individual is described not as a core self but as a range of selves brought forth by and embodied in particular contexts.

postmodernism

An intellectual and political movement that began after World War II and flourished in the 1950s and 1960s. Postmodernism challenges the modernist views that life is orderly, the self is coherent, and a particular social order is natural and right.

relational self

In postmodern theory, a self that has no stable core but is formed in particular relationships and changes as it enters and leaves relationships.

sous rature

Literally, "under erasure."  Term coined by Jacques Derrida, a postmodernist, to call attention to the necessity of words to refer to phenomena and simultaneously the inability of words to fully represent them.

subject

Term used by postmodern-poststructural theorists to distinguish persons as individuals and to call attention to subjectivity as a way of being-a process, not a fixed essence.

symbolic interactionism/symbolic interaction theory

The point of view that claims society predates individuals, who acquire minds and selves in the process of interacting symbolically with other members of a culture. Symbols are also necessary to the functioning and continuation of collective life.

 

 

Case 18 Thought and Reflection

Sarah and Russell are married.  Sarah works too much, doesn't know how to say know, and is working on her Master's.  Sarah insults Russell about his lack of education.  Russell wants more intimacy.  He feels left out regarding education.  Sarah thinks he doesn't work enough around the house.  Sarah's friend tells her to fight fair, never when tired.

  1. Sarah seems to have good intentions when she first decides to ask Russell for more help around the house. However, several factors seem to derail her original intention. What are some of those factors? Which might be attributed to the situation, and which might be attributed to the interaction?

  2. John Gottman (1994) describes four phases of dysfunctional conflict that characterize unhappy couples. Criticism is attacking a partner’s personality or character, rather than his or her behavior. Contempt is insulting and psychologically abusing a partner’s sense of self. Defensiveness is the refusal to accept responsibility for one’s actions, often done by meeting partner’s complaint with a counter complaint. Stonewalling is characterized by withdrawing from interaction and keeping an icy distance. What signs of these patterns do you see beginning to show in the conflict between Sarah and Russell? Explain.

  3. Sarah and Russell come up with some rules to help them manage their conflict. What are these rules? Do you think their rules are good ones? Are there other rules you believe they should add to guide their conflict, either before it starts or after it is underway?

  1. What do you see in the future for Sarah and Russell? In other words, do you believe they have resolved all of the important issues? Do you think there is any "latent" conflict (unresolved issues) that might influence future interactions. If so, describe the issues that might linger as problems in their relationship.

 

 

What is your ethical position regarding the interpersonal communication situations in this case study?

 

 

Week 15

April 28-30

Read chapter 14

Additional cases.

 

No revisions accepted after Monday of this week.

Week and Chapter 14

Interpersonal Communication Theories in Action

 


Photo credit.
 

 

I.  Scholars are no longer limited to the orthodox goals of theory.

 

  A.  Among theorists there are disagreements about appropriate goals of theories.

 

     1.  Most theorists agree that description and explanation are basic goals of theorizing.

 

     2.  Some scholars emphasize control and prediction as additional goals, whereas other scholars seek understanding and interpretation.

 

     3.  Among theorists there is controversy about the appropriateness of positive social change as a goal of theorizing.

 

Question!?!?

 

What forms or issues of interpersonal communication do you think the next generation of communication theories should address?  Why are these especially important?

 

Talk about it with the person next to you or team members in your group.  What do you think?!?!  Have one person act as the recorder, who will write notes and email them to everyone BEFORE the next class meeting.  Make sure the person who write the collaborative answer is NOT the person who served as recorder in the last session.  The recorder will select the person to report the answer to the whole class. 

 

"I respect faith, but doubt is what gets you an education."
Wilson Mizner (1876 - 1933)

Photo credit.

 

Cartoon credit

 

II.  Communication theories exist in interpersonal and other contexts that affect what they are and what goals they pursue.

TALK ABOUT IT with a couple people.

 

What do you know about the influence of intercultural communication theories in interpersonal contexts?

Brain Dominance

1.  Previously in school, what have you been told about your individual learning style?  For example, are you right brained (holistic) or left brained (linear)?  For example, when you communicate and learn, do you prefer learning using logic?  Working independently?  Using language?  Listening?  Using hands=on?  Working with others?  Seeing visuals?

2.  Take this test:  http://www.web-us.com/brain/braindominance.htm

What do your results say?

3.  Look at the dancer http://www.news.com.au/perthnow/story/0,21598,22492511-5005375,00.html

Clockwise?       Counterclockwise?      What is the implication?

4.  Calculate this problem.

1010

x  30

-------

How did you calculate that problem?

5.  Farmer Jones raises ducks and cows.  She tries not to clutter her mind with too many details, but she does think it’s important to remember how many animals she has and how many feet those animals have.  She thinks she remembers having 54 animals with 122 feet.  Assuming all the animals have the “normal” number of feet, how many of each type of animal does Farmer Jones have?  (There are a couple of different ways this problem can be done.  Show your method.)  _____ ducks and _____ cows

6.  If you have time, here is another test similar to the first one. http://www.testcafe.com/lbrb/lbrb.html

7.  What are the implications of all of this for the way you communicate interpersonally?

 

Review Chapter 14

Explain in your own words or give a personal example!

agency

One element in the dramatistic pentad; the means or channel through which an act is performed. 

constructivism

The point of view that humans create meanings by relying on four basic cognitive schemata, or knowledge structures.

coordinated management of meanings (CMM)

See rules theory.

critical theories

A group of theories that seek to produce change in oppressive or otherwise undesirable practices and structures in society.

cultivation theory

The point of view that television promotes a view of social reality that may be inaccurate but that viewers nonetheless assume reflects real life.

cultural studies theories

A group of related theories that seek to unmask and challenge the techniques by which privileged groups maintain their privilege and power in society.

dramatism

The point of view that life is a drama that can be understood in dramatic terms such as act, agent, scene, agency, and purpose. Identification is viewed as the primary goal of symbolic interaction, and guilt is viewed as the ultimate motive for communication.

epistemology

The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge, or how we know what we know.

ideology

The ideas, values, beliefs, and understandings that are common to members of a social group and that guide the practices and customs of the society.

interactional theory

A theory built on the premise that communication and relationships are systems in which meaning is established through contexts, punctuation, and content and relationship levels of meaning.

narrative paradigm/narrative theory

The point of view that humans are natural storytellers and that most, if not all, communication is storytelling.

ontology

The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of humans.

reform

One goal of theorizing; the use of theory to instigate change in pragmatic life. Also called "producing positive social change."

rules theory

The point of view that socially constructed and learned rules guide communication. Also called coordinated management of meaning (CMM) theory.

standpoint theory

The view that the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what members of that group experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.

symbolic interactionism /symbolic interaction theory

The point of view that claims society predates individuals, who acquire minds and selves in the process of interacting symbolically with other members of a culture. Symbols are also necessary to the functioning and continuation of collective life.

technological determinism

The point of view that media decisively influence how individuals think, feel, and act, as well as how they view collective life.

uncertainty reduction theory

The point of view that uncertainty motivates communication and that certainty reduces the motivation to communicate.

 

Case Study 19:  Betrayal

This case is told by a friend of Sandy and Chris (a third person).  Crazy hair Sandy and maybe doing drugs Chris were loyal friends, and they thought no one knew they were lovers.  They backed each other, helped each other.  The story-teller says it's harder for 3 people to be friends together, particularly when hearing negatives from one.  What do you say to the other?  Do you say partial truth?  Do you give a warning?

Drawing Credit

How might intercultural communication affect the interpersonal communication in these cases?

 

Interpersonal Communication Questions

 

  1. What's the most important thing you've learned about communication in this course?

  2. Why do the same words mean different things to different people?

  3. What is cooperative communication?

  4. What is confrontational communication?

  5. What is the "less is more" principle of effective communication?

  6. What's the biggest myth or misconception about interpersonal communication?

  7. How can understanding different types of conversations make you a better communicator?

  8. Why is it important that all parties in interpersonal communication have the "same type of conversation?

  9. What is the difference between advocacy communication and inquiry communication?

  10. What is the difference (and importance) of task oriented communication and relationship oriented communication?

  11. Is it possible to NOT communicate?

  12. What are communication channels and why are they important?

  13. Why and how is email communication different from any other type of interpersonal communication?

  14. Why is email prone to creating unnecessary conflict?

  15. Can excessive questioning interfere with communication?

  16. What is a "leading question?"

  17. How can offering advice interfere with understanding each other?

  18. What is the effect of believing "I'm Special" regarding interpersonal communication?

  19. How can you increase your empathy toward other people during interpersonal communication?

  20. Why is timing so important in interpersonal communication?

  21. How can you become a more responsive listener?

  22. How can you pay attention more effectively in interpersonal communication?

  23. How does gender influence the interpersonal communication?

  24. How can you communicate with more cultural sensitivity?

 

Interpersonal Communication Questions

 

  1. Are meanings in people or the context?

  2. Why do you think heart disease is more common among people who lack strong interpersonal relationships?

  3. Why do you think people in disturbed relationships have low self-esteem, more headaches, alcoholism, cancer, and sleep disorders?

  4. How does interpersonal communication affect professional success?

  5. How does interpersonal communication affect family success?

  6. How can you improve your listening skills in interpersonal communication?

  7. Good listeners restate and respond nonverbally.  How effectively do you employ those listening skills?

  8. What is your best interpersonal communication in the work context?

  9. What are the most important interpersonal communication issues in your college classrooms?

  10. How is communication on the Internet interpersonal?

  11. What are you going to do today to improve your interpersonal communication?

  12. How can you apply communication theories to improve your interpersonal communication?

  13. How can you accept uncertainty and the inability to predict the behavior of others in interpersonal communication?

  14. What is the most important thing you learned by doing your action research project?

  15. What will you—or did you—study about communication in your senior project?

  16. How can you accept uncertainty and the inability to predict the behavior of others in interpersonal communication?

  17. Do you think people gain more interpersonal communication meaning through words or nonverbal elements of communication?

  18. What is the most important communication theory you learned this semester and why?

  19. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with knowledge and how we know.  What methods of knowing do you rely on regarding interpersonal communication?

  20. Ontology is the group of assumptions about human natures.  What are some of your assumptions about human nature?

  21. Standpoint theory--the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what its members experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.  Describe how your standpoint affects interpersonal communication.

  22. There are no laws that explain human communication across all time and circumstances.  We seek theories as the articulation of rules that describe patterns in human behavior. Tell your partner one rule regarding interpersonal communication.

  23. Behaviorists believe that scientists can study only concrete behaviors, such as what people do or say.  What is an interpersonal communication behavior that needs for investigative research?

  24. Ethnography attempts to discover what things mean to others by sensitive observation of human activity.   They rely on unobtrusive methods, which are means of gathering data that intrude minimally on naturally occurring interaction.  Describe a way you could use ethnography in studying human communication on the Internet for your senior project.

 

Week 16

Final Exam 

 

 

General Course Information

Recommended Prerequisites:  CA104 

Course description: A study of the nature of and problems in communication.  Areas of study include: mental process in communication, perception, content, amount of communication, interpersonal and task behaviors, norms, conflict, creativity, touch, distance, time usage, manipulation of environment, intervention, attitude change and opinions, and how communication fosters attraction, productivity and leadership.  The course focuses on the development of a framework for analyzing the various approaches to interpersonal communication. 

Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

ISBN-10: 0534566391
ISBN-13: 978-0534566395

AND

Braithewaite, D. O., & Wood, J. T. (2000).  Case studies in interpersonal communication processes and problems.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

ISBN-10: 0534565387
ISBN-13: 978-0534565381

 

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course the student should be able to:

  • Define communication and interpersonal communication and differentiate them from other related terms.

  • Understand the general nature of theory and its place in the study of interpersonal communication.

  • Compare and contrast various approaches to studying interpersonal communication.

  • Explain how we define ourselves as communicators.

  • Create a model of relational development and dissolution.

  • Illustrate how verbal and nonverbal communication affects relationships.

  • Evaluate different communication strategies for relational maintenance and repair.

  • Explain the influence of the social context on relationships.

  • Evaluate perception’s influence on interpersonal communication.

  • Explain the role of listening and self-disclosure on relationships.

  • Evaluate the different strategies for dealing with conflict.

  • Explain barriers to communication and how to overcome them.

ASSIGNMENT WEIGHT (See syllabus for updated information about your course.)

Syllabus:  http://www.park.edu/syllabus/list.aspx 

 

Grading

Case study leadership:  7

Case study participation (this requires oral comments relevant to the case): 2 x 14=28

Wood chapter learning activity, quiz, class work:  2 X 14=28

Self-analysis paper due week 11: 7

Core assessment with course work evidence due week 13:  20

Final exam (100% correct required from online version or take as a regular exam during final exam period):  10

Extra credit theorist presentation:  5

 

Final class session:  Anyone who does not have the final grade they want is required to meet with me during class time.

 

Avoiding Plagiarism:  click here.

Academic integrity, although another university’s policy, true in any case:  click here. 

APA citation style:  click here.

Reference List, click here

 

 

Style Manual

APA (2009).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.  6th ed.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association. 

 

CORE ASSESSMENT PORTFOLIO

 

Portfolio Due with Revised Action Research Project inside the portfolio.  The department required that the core assessment for CA301 Interpersonal II will be a portfolio which

-Includes a variety of student assignments designed to show student mastery of at least eight (75 percent) of the core learning objectives for the course.  (Tests, Try-It-Outs, and Research Paper)

  • Define communication and interpersonal communication and differentiate them from other related terms, such as intercultural communication or public relations.

  • Describe the general nature of theory and its place in the study of interpersonal communication.

  • Compare and contrast various approaches to studying interpersonal communication.

  • Explain how we define ourselves as communicators.

  • Create a model of relational development and dissolution.

  • Illustrate how verbal and nonverbal communication affects relationships.

  • Evaluate different communication strategies for relational maintenance and repair.

  • Explain the influence of the social context on relationships.

  • Evaluate perception’s influence on interpersonal communication.

  • Explain the role of listening and self-disclosure on relationships.

  • Evaluate the different strategies for dealing with conflict.

  • Explain barriers to communication and how to overcome them.

-Includes a ten-page research based paper that utilizes a minimum of ten sources.  (Research Paper)

-Includes at least one assignment that requires students to analyze the communication in a relationship (a case study of real or simulated interpersonal communication).  (Case Discussion Leadership)

-Includes at least one assignment that illustrates student understanding of intercultural differences in values and communication and how that affects relationships. (Chapter 10)

-Includes at least one assignment assessing their own communication strengths and weaknesses and develop action plans to improve weak areas. 

-Includes tests to illustrate knowledge of the philosophical roots of communication and the history of the field.  (Weekly tests)

-Must not be assembled before the last quarter of the course although it may contain work done as the semester progress, such as journals. 

-Emphasizes activities associated with the ability to think critically and communicate effectively.  (Try-It-Outs and other application activies)

-Must be transmitted to the instructor in electronic form. (Submit in eCollege or according to your professor's instructions.)

 

 

Uncertainty Reduction Theory
In practice!

ePortfolio Expectations

  • Portfolio assignments synthesize information from the text and 9 or more additional sources. (Demonstrated in Action Research Project.)

  • Portfolio assignments analyze stages/elements of all communication concepts illustrated in the assignment and identify motives, causes and effect of the communication. (Demonstrated in Action Research Project.)

  • Portfolio assignments evaluate the communication strategies used in a given situation in terms of successfulness and usefulness and offers suggestions for improvement of strategy selection.  (Demonstrated in Action Research Project.)

  • Portfolio demonstrates a consistent use of more than eight concepts/terms associated with interpersonal communication. (Demonstrated by Wood's chapter terms and weekly tests.)

  • Portfolio defines more than eight concepts associated with interpersonal communication in the student’s own words.  (Demonstrated by Wood's chapter terms and weekly tests.)

  • Portfolio applies nine or more learned concepts to a given communication situation and explains the elements that need to be altered for communication to be more effective (Demonstrated by Try-It-Outs.)

  • The portfolio demonstrates the student’s achievement of nine or more of the competencies with no more than one to three errors in writing conventions (APA style).

  • Single components/assignments of the portfolio demonstrate the student’s integration and mastery of multiple objectives beyond what was necessary for the assignment.  (Demonstrated by at least one extra Try-It-Out, extra quiz, written summary of group/class case study, or extra assignment).

  • The portfolio demonstrates the student’s knowledge of the philosophical roots and history of the communication field by achieving scores of more than 90 percent on all exams. (Demonstrated by short tests or the final exam--copy of results--with a grade of 90% higher on each).

  • The portfolio demonstrates the student’s analysis of personal strengths and weaknesses and offers goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and tangible.  (Action Research Project and Try-It-Out assignments.)

YOU CAN DO IT!

Example APA formatting.

Improving the Quality of Your Interpersonal Action Research Project

            To find high quality journal articles, go to http://park.edu/library/  Select “Ebsco,” then go to “Choose Databases,” and select “Communication and Mass Media Complete.”  When you save or print your choice, select APA style, and the program will provide close formatting of the reference listing for you.  Remember, everything in the reference list needs to be cited in the paper and everything used in the paper needs to be listed in the reference list. 

  1. Select a topic and project you will enjoy, work with others, and have fun.

  2. Use your own words, but cite and reference extensively. 

  3. Use at least ten quality sources about interpersonal communication in your paper, using APA style.  click here.

  4. Submit an electronic file in eCollege dropbox. 

  5. Provide ten content pages. 

  6. Reference list needs at least ten quality references, which are used and cited in APA parenthetical format in the body of your paper.  Use the topic headings above for your organizational format. 

  7. Provide a header. 

  8. Double-space everything.

CITATIONS FOR PARAPHRASING INSIDE THE BODY OF THE PAPER:

            Depending on a person’s position or role, the individual may have different understandings of barriers to good listening (Watson & Smeltzer, 1984).

Cragan and Shields (1998) defined dialectical relationship theory as on that describes the “communication strategies necessary for coping with the dialectical tensions (push-pull) endemic to close personal relationships” (p. 215).  In other words, dialectical tensions are our conflicting desires to be close and more independent at the same time.

References

Jones, S. (2005). Attachment style differences and similarities in evaluations of affective communication skills and person-centered comforting messages. Western Journal of Communication, 69(3), 233-249.

Lane, D. (2001).  Communication theory workbook:  Interpersonal contexts.  Lexington, KY.  Accessed October 25, 2006 from http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/interpersonal/

Schachner, D., Shaver, P., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Patterns of nonverbal behavior and sensitivity in the context of attachment relationships. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 29(3), 141-169.

Schutz, W.  (1984).   The truth option.  Berkeley, CA:  Ten Speed Press.

Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Watson, K., & Smeltzer, L. (1984). Barriers to listening: Comparison between students and practitioners. Communication Research Reports, 1(1), 82-87.

 

PRESENTATION
Grading Rubric for case leadership, action research presentation, group presentation.

Check for meets expectations.
"R" for needs to revise.

Effective delivery style (loud enough, appropriately professional appearance and speech)

 

Engaged students in class discussion by asking various students questions or otherwise encouraging them to participate.

 

Presented research-based information from textbook or scholarly sources.

 

All students in group actively participate in planning and presentation.

 

Clearly relate content to interpersonal communication.

 

 

 

 

 

MOVIE CASES:  INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

 

AS GOOD AS IT GETS

Melvin is a romantic novelist who is a selfish manic compulsive who is rude and insulting to all he meets. When Melvin's gay neighbor is beaten up and robbed, Melvin agrees to look after his dog. The dog gives Melvin something to care about other than himself and his life is approaching normal until his regular waitress has to leave work to look after her asthmatic son and his neighbor wants his dog back. Melvin starts to realize that his life needs others for more than just selfish reasons.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

All of us create and project images that suit our purposes in various moments. "IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT is the process of managing setting, words, nonverbal communication, and dress in an effort to create a particular image of individuals and situations.  According to Goffman (1959), our efforts to create and project certain impressions may be either highly calculated or unintentional" (Wood, 2004, p. 119-120). Effective interpersonal communicators know how to keep backstage behaviors out of view of the audience so they don't invalidate the front stage performance. Describe the use of impression management in this case.

            Stereotypes are predictive generalizations about how a person will behave.  How do stereotypes—positive or negative ones—affect the way we construct interpersonal communication?

 

*CLUELESS

            US West Coast teen lifestyle parody.  Cher, a high school student in Beverly Hills, must survive the ups and downs of adolescent life. Her external demeanor at first seems superficial, but rather it hides her wit, charm, and intelligence which help her to deal with relationships, friends, family, school, and the all-important teenage social life.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Rules theory and constructivism extend the premises of symbolic interactionism by providing more detailed accounts of how individuals construct meanings. We use communication rules to coordinate meanings in interaction with others. Rules allow us to make sense of social interaction and guide our own communication so that we coordinate meanings with others. What are interpersonal communication rules in this case?

            Constructivists believe that people vary in the complexity, or sophistication, of their interpretive processes.  What do you perceive is the cognitive complexity of the characters in this case?

 

FORGET PARIS

Mickey Gordon is a basketball referee who travels to France to bury his father. Ellen Andrews is an American living in Paris who works for the airline he flies on. They meet and fall in love, but their relationship goes through many difficult patches. The story is told in flashback by their friends at a restaurant waiting for them to arrive.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Cultural theory suggests that societies define distinct groups not only as different but as differentially worthy, valuable, or capable.  Can you identify any cultural groups in this case?

Systems Theory suggests that all life forms, social as well as biological, can be understood only as complex, organized wholes called systems. All parts are interrelated. Systems are organized wholes. The whole is more than the sum of its parts.  Openness is the extent to which a system affects and is affected by factors and processes outside of it.  Most human relationships are fairly open. Systems strive for, but never achieve, equilibrium.  Absolute balance isn't possible for living systems.  What system or systems are affecting the interpersonal communication in this case?

Dialectical theory is the point of view that certain tensions between contradictory desires are inherent in personal relationships.

Dialectics.  In dialectical theory, points of contradiction that cause tension and impel change in relationships. Three relational dialectics have been identified: autonomy -connection, openness-closedness, and novelty-routine. What dialectical tension(s) is operating in this case?

 

*HOPE FLOATS

            Birdee Calvert-Pruitt is back in her hometown of Smithville, Texas after discovering that her husband is having an affair with her best friend, Connie. The entire town knows what happened to flawless beauty Birdee since Connie let her know about the affair on a national talk show. Back in town, she's dealing with catty old friends and acquaintances from high school who can't help rubbing it in her face that she isn't as perfect as she thought while still trying to get back on her feet with her daughter, Bernice. Deeply depressed, she runs into an old friend, Justin Matisse, who tries to help her through, but is still in love with her. Birdee must make a new life for her and her daughter.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Uncertainty reduction theory is the point of view that uncertainty motivates communication and that certainty reduces the motivation to communicate.  How is uncertainty shaping interpersonal communication in this case?

Those who believe that there are multiple realities would regard it as entirely reasonable that different people interpret communication in varying ways. Standpoint theory--the material, social, and symbolic circumstances of a social group shape what its members experience, as well as how they think, act, and feel.  What are the multiple realities in this case?

            Dialectical theory is the point of view that certain tensions between contradictory desires are inherent in personal relationships.

Dialectics.  In dialectical theory, points of contradiction that cause tension and impel change in relationships. Three relational dialectics have been identified: autonomy -connection, openness-closedness, and novelty-routine. What dialectical tension(s) is operating in this case?

 

*HOW TO MAKE AN AMERICAN QUILT

Finn is a young graduate student, finishing a master's thesis, and preparing for marriage to her fiance Sam. But thoughts of the end of the free life, and a potential summer fling, intrude. She goes home to her grandmother, where, over the making of her wedding gift by a group of quilting-bee friends, laughter, bickering, love, and advice lead her toward a more open-eyed examination of her course.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Critical analysis suggests that research should make a real difference in the lives of human beings.  Critical scholarship is one important way to change oppressive or wrong practices in the world.  What do you think of interpersonal communication research about gender or ethnicity?

Metacommunication is communication about communication. If these characters were to talk about their interpersonal communication, what might they say?

Developmental theories focus on how relationships develop, grow, and decline over time.  How do people expect interpersonal communication to change as the relationship develops?

 

MY BEST FRIEND'S WEDDING

            Michael O'Neal and Julianne Potter have been friends for years but when Michael rings Julianne to tell her he is getting married to a lady called Kimberly Wallace she finally realizes he has to him her true feelings, which are that she loves him. When she gets there she can't do it so she tries to do everything to get them to break up.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Korzybski believed that communication problems often occur when we rely on our maps, or words, to assign meanings instead of referring to the territories, or actual phenomena of experience.  What do you notice about language in their interpersonal communication?

 

NEVER BEEN KISSED

            A journalist enrolls in her old highschool as part of her research for a story. Josie Geller, at 25 the youngest Chicago Sun-Times copy editor, really is good at her job, which requires brain more than writing skills. The owner of the paper now wants her and no other to report undercover about today's high schools. Josie enrolls and quickly falls back into her own school habits: She was then known as Josie Grossie, she did not make any friends, she even was humiliated. Now, with a good job in her life and with her experiences from a life after school, she tries to fit in as well as possible. Having to seek friendship with some pretty but not very bright girls instead of with the people who really interest her gets really hard for Josie, but her job is at stake, if there is no gripping cover story soon. Falling for a teacher whom she is ordered to shred to pieces in her article, Josie is confronted with her greatest conflict - but also with the chance to undo mistakes she did in her own school days.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Self is the ability to reflect on ourselves from the perspective of others.

Looking glass self.  Symbolic interactionists explain that we learn to see ourselves mirrored in others' eyes.  Our perception of how others see us are lenses through which we perceive ourselves. The self-fulfilling prophecy is when individuals live up to the labels others impose on them.  How does out self perception affect interpersonal communication?

 

*STEPMOM

            Anna and Ben, the two children of Jackie and Luke, have to cope with the fact that their parents divorced and that there is a new woman in their father's life: Isabel, a successful photographer. She does her best to treat the kids in a way that makes them still feel at home when being with their dad, but also loves her work and does not plan to give it up. But Jackie, a full-time mother, regards Isabel's efforts as offensively insufficient. She can't understand that work can be important to her as well as the kids. The conflict between them is deepened by the sudden diagnose of cancer, which might may be deadly for Jackie.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Symbolic interactionists believe that people act on the basis of what things mean to them AND that meanings are formed in the process of interacting symbolically with others in a society.  Discuss how meanings are formed in this case?

 

*THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT

            As President, Andrew Shepherd is immensely popular (he has a 63% approval rating). As a man, he's a lonely father struggling to raise a daughter. His struggles multiply when his romance with lobbyist Sydney Ellen Wade becomes fodder for both the press and a rival Senator -- precipitating a rapid drop in the polls.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Burke suggests that life is a drama, which involves conflict. Communication can't be perfect.  Our symbols allow us to conceive and name perfect forms or ideals that are at the top of the hierarchy.  What does the interpersonal communication in this case suggest about hierarchy?

 

UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL

            Michelle Pfeiffer plays Sally Atwater, who is a young woman, looking to become a star in the news and television industry. She sends out a tape to a lot of stations, but only one answers it. She first becomes a secretary, and Warren Justice (played by Robert Redford) later makes her a weather person, and then finally a real news person.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Fisher's Narrative Theory suggests the importance of storytelling.  "Humans are by nature storytelling beings and that the narrative capacity is what is most basic and most distinctive about humans.  According to Fisher, humans are storytelling animals.  Fisher (1987) believed that we make sense of our experiences in life by transforming them into stories, or narrative form. . . .Storytelling, in other words, is an ongoing human activity, one as natural and nearly as continuous breathing" (Wood, 2004, p. 105).

"Humans are wonderfully creative and imaginative beings. . . .We are able to invent and accept new stories when they better explain our lives or offer better directions for future living than the stories we have grown up hearing and believing" (p. 113).

What is the role of storytelling in interpersonal communication?  How do movies tell our stories? 

 

WHAT DREAMS MAY COME

            Doctor Chris Nielson meets his true soul mate Annie, marries her and has two children. The children die in a car accident, and Chris dies four years after that. Ending up in heaven, he is guided by friendly guardian angel Albert through the afterlife, and he is reunited with his dog and children. But when he finds out his wife had committed suicide, he desperately searches for her spirit, journeying through Heaven and Hell along the way.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

Which point of view is consistent with the movie?  Which point of view is consistent with your view?  How does that affect your interpersonal communication?

Assumptions of the Rational World Paradigm

1.      People are basically rational beings.

2.      We make decisions and form beliefs on the basis of arguments.

3.      Arguments are determined by the nature of specific speaking situations.

4.      Rationality is evaluated by the quality of knowledge and reasoning.

5.      Life consists of logical relationships that can be discovered through rational logic and reasoning.

Assumptions of the Narrative Paradigm

1.      People are basically storytelling beings.

2.      We make decisions and form beliefs on the basis of good reasons.

3.      What we consider good reasons depends on history, culture, personal character, and biography.

4.      Narrative rationality is evaluated by the coherence and fidelity of stories.

5.      Life is a set of stories, in choosing to accept some stories and to reject others, we continuously re-create our lives and ourselves.

 

WHERE THE HEART IS

A pregnant teen (Natalie Portman) goes on the road with her dreamer boy friend (Dylan Bruno), who abandons her in a Wal-Mart store in Oklahoma. Left alone with virtually no money, she hides out in the store for 6 weeks until her baby is born. After the birth, she gets national recognition as giving birth to the "Wal-mart baby". She makes friends with two local women (Stockard Channing as a religious, but promiscuous woman & Ashley Judd as a woman with a pile of kids, who also seems to have considerable man problems until she marries the local exterminator). She also becomes friends with the Wal-mart photographer (David Keith), who leads her to a career, and with a young man (James Frain) who runs the library and takes her of his alcoholic sister, who is the real librarian

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLE

What are interpersonal communication concepts relevant to this case?  Given communication situation in the case, how do the elements need to be altered for communication to be more effective?

 

Each movie synopsis from http://www.imdb.com

 

 

HELP

http://JoanAitken.org/LibraryTutorial/eCollegeTutorial.htm

I

MPORTANT

These lecture materials quoted directly or closely adapted from Communication Theories in Action, by Julia Wood.  This page for use by students who have purchased the book and are currently enrolled in CA 301, Park University.

 

Students should expect this information to change and be updated while the course is in progress. 

 

This document does not constitute a contract.

 

Photos from Microsoft Office http://www.allposters.com/ or as credited for use only in course presentation materials for enrolled students.

 

Copyright

IMPORTANT

These lecture materials quoted directly or closely adapted from required course books, including Communication Theories in Action, by Julia Wood.  This page for use only by students who have purchased the book and are currently enrolled in CA 301, Park University.

 

This site is a private site without authorization from any institution, company, or organization.  This material is provided only for the use of students who are currently enrolled at Park University.  Instructional materials quoted or adapted directly come from the course textbook and are protected by the publisher’s copyright.  Articles are copyrighted by EBSCO.  Other materials are copyrighted by Joan E. Aitken or Park University, 2006-2009. ©  All rights reserved.

 

Page reference:  Aitken, J. E.  (2009).  Title of page.  Kansas City, MO:  JoanAitken.org.  Retrieved month day, year, from http://JoanAitken.org/

 

Instructional materials reference: 

Wood, J. T.  (2004).  Communication theories in action: An introduction.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Braithewaite, D. O., & Wood, J. T. (2000).  Case studies in interpersonal communication processes and problems.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.